Introduction to Shape Memory Alloy Technology

  • Alexander CzechowiczEmail author
  • Sven Langbein


In this chapter, the basic effects of the phase transformation of shape memory alloys are discussed in brief as well as the material properties and the different alloy types. The basic functions and challenges in the production process reveal the influences on the actuating behavior of shape memory alloys.


Phase transformation Transition temperatures Austenite Martensite Stress Strain Pseudoplasticity Pseudoelasticity Hysteresis 


  1. 1.
    H. Stork, Aufbau, Modellbildung und Regelung von Formgedächtnisaktorsystemen. VDI-Fortschrittsberichte, Reihe 8, Nr. 657. (VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Mertmann: NiTi-Formgedächtnislegierungen für Aktoren der Greifertechnik. VDI-Fortschrittsberichte, Reihe 5, Nr. 469 (VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Otsuka, C.M. Wayman, Shape Memory Materials (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Langbein, A. Czechowicz, Konstruktionspraxis Formgedächtnistechnik (Springer Vieweg, Mannheim, 2013). 3834819573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Stöckel, Engineering Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys, 1st edn. (Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., London, 1990)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Khalil-Allafi, A. Dlouhy, G. Eggeler, Ni4Ti3-precipitation during aging of NiTi shape memory alloys and its influence on martensitic phase transformations. Acta Mater. 50, 4255–4274 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Otsuka, X. Ren, Martensitic transformations in nonferrous shape memory alloys. Materials Science and Engineering, A 273-275, Elsevier, 1999, S.89–105Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Ma, I. Karaman, R.D. Noebe, High temperature shape memory alloys. Int. Mater. Rev. 55(5), 257–315 (2010). Maney, ASM InternationalCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. Miyazaki et al., Novel beta-TiTaAl alloys with excellent cold workability and a stable high-temperature shape memory effect. Scr. Mater. 64(12), 1114–1117 (2011). Elsevier Science, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.-S. Choi, J. Ogawa, T. Fukuda, T. Kakeshita, Stability of the B2-type structure and R-phase transformation behavior of Fe or Co doped Ti–Ni alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 438–440, 527–530 (2006). ElsevierCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Zhoua, G. Fana, J. Zhang, X. Ding, X. Ren, J. Suna, K. Otsuka, Understanding of multi-stage R-phase transformation in aged Ni-rich Ti–Ni shape memory alloys. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 438–440, 602–607 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Treppmann, Thermomechanische Behandlung von NiTi. VDI-Fortschrittbericht, Reihe 5, Nr. 462, (VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Pulnev, V. Nikolaev, A. Priadko, A. Rogov, I. Vahhi, Actuators and drivers based on CuAlNi shape memory single crystals. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. Vol. 20, Issue 4–5, pp. 497-499, DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-9915-2 (2010)

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zentrum für Angewandte Formgedächtnistechnik, Forschungsgemeinschaft Werkzeuge und Werkstoffe e.V.RemscheidGermany
  2. 2.FG-INNOVATION GmbHBochumGermany

Personalised recommendations