Dynamic Packing with Side Constraints for Datacenter Resource Management

  • Sophie DemasseyEmail author
  • Fabien Hermenier
  • Vincent Kherbache
Part of the Springer Optimization and Its Applications book series (SOIA, volume 105)


Resource management in datacenters involves assigning virtual machines with changing resource demands to physical machines with changing capacities. Recurrently, the changes invalidate the assignment and the resource manager recomputes it at runtime. The assignment is also subject to changing restrictions expressing a variety of user requirements. The present chapter surveys this application of vector packing—called the VM reassignment problem—with an insight into its dynamic and heterogeneous nature. We advocate flexibility to answer these issues and present BtrPlace, a flexible and scalable heuristic solution based on Constraint Programming.


Datacenter resource management Vector packing Dynamic side constraints Constraint programming 



BtrPlace is available online under the terms of the LGPL license [7]. Instances used in the experiments are available at Experiments presented in this paper were carried out using the Grid’5000 experimental testbed (, being developed by INRIA with support from CNRS, RENATER and several universities as well as other funding bodies.


  1. 1.
    Aggarwal, G., Motwani, R., Zhu, A.: The load rebalancing problem. In: 15th Annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA ’03), pp. 258–265 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Beldiceanu, N., Carlsson, M., Rampon, J.X.: Global Constraint Catalog, 2nd edn. Technical report, Swedish Institute of Computer Science (2010).
  4. 4.
    Beloglazov, A., Abawajy, J., Buyya, R.: Energy-aware resource allocation heuristics for efficient management of data centers for cloud computing. Future Gener. Comput. Syst. 28(5), 755–768 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bin, E., Biran, O., Boni, O., Hadad, E., Kolodner, E., Moatti, Y., Lorenz, D.: Guaranteeing high availability goals for virtual machine placement. In: International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bobroff, N., Kochut, A., Beaty, K.: Dynamic placement of virtual machines for managing sla violations. In: 10th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM’07), pp. 119–128 (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    BtrPlace: An Open-source flexible virtual machine scheduler.
  8. 8.
    Choco: An open source Java constraint programming library.
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    Dang, H.T., Hermenier, F.: Higher sla satisfaction in datacenters with continuous vm placement constraints. In: 9th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Dependable Systems (HotDep ’13), pp. 1:1–1:6 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dean, J.: Designs, lessons and advice from building large distributed systems. In: Keynote of the International Conference on Large-Scale Distributed Systems and Middleware (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dupont, C., Hermenier, F., Schulze, T., Basmadjian, R., Somov, A., Giuliani, G.: Plug4green: A flexible energy-aware VM manager to fit data centre particularities. Ad Hoc Netw. 25(B), pp. 505–519 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Epping, D., Frank, D.: VMware vSphere 4.1 HA and DRS technical deepdive, CreateSpace (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fukunaga, A.S.: Search spaces for min-perturbation repair. In: 15th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP’09), pp. 383–390 (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Garey, M.R., Graham, R.L., Johnson, D.S., Yao, A.C.C.: Resource constrained scheduling as generalized bin packing. J. Comb. Theory Ser. A 21(3), 257–298 (1976)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hermenier, F., Loriant, N., Menaud, J.M.: Power management in grid computing with xen. In: International Conference on Frontiers of High Performance Computing and Networking (ISPA’06), pp. 407–416 (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hermenier, F., Lorca, X., Menaud, J.M., Muller, G., Lawall, J.: Entropy: A consolidation manager for clusters. In: ACM SIGPLAN/SIGOPS International Conference on Virtual Execution Environments. ACM, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hermenier, F., Demassey, S., Lorca, X.: Bin repacking scheduling in virtualized datacenters. In: Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming (CP’11), pp. 27–41. Springer, Berlin (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hermenier, F., Lawall, J., Muller, G.: Btrplace: A flexible consolidation manager for highly available applications. IEEE Trans. Dependable Secure Comput. 10(5), 273–286 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jung, G., Hiltunen, M.A., Joshi, K.R., Schlichting, R.D., Pu, C.: Mistral: Dynamically managing power, performance, and adaptation cost in cloud infrastructures. In: 30th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS ’10), pp. 62–73 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nus, A., Raz, D.: Migration plans with minimum overall migration time. In: 2014 IEEE Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS), pp. 1–9 (2014)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Openstack cloud software:
  23. 23.
    Roadef/Euro challenge 2012: Machine reassignment (2012).
  24. 24.
    Tang, C., Steinder, M., Spreitzer, M., Pacifici, G.: A scalable application placement controller for enterprise data centers. In: 16th ACM International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 331–340 (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Verma, A., Ahuja, P., Neogi, A.: pmapper: Power and migration cost aware application placement in virtualized systems. In: Middleware 2008. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5346, pp. 243–264. Springer Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Virtualization penetration rate in the enterprise. Technical report, Veeam Software (2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wood, T., Tarasuk-Levin, G., Shenoy, P., Desnoyers, P., Cecchet, E., Corner, M.D.: Memory buddies: Exploiting page sharing for smart colocation in virtualized data centers. In: ACM SIGPLAN/SIGOPS International Conference on Virtual Execution Environments, pp. 31–40 (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zheng, J., Ng, T.S.E., Sripanidkulchai, K., Liu, Z.: COMMA: Coordinating the migration of multi-tier applications. In: 10th ACM SIGPLAN/SIGOPS International Conference on Virtual Execution Environments (VEE ’14) (2014)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sophie Demassey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fabien Hermenier
    • 2
  • Vincent Kherbache
    • 3
  1. 1.MINES ParisTechPSL - Research University, CMASophia Antipolis CedexFrance
  2. 2.University Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, I3S, UMR 7271Sophia AntipolisFrance
  3. 3.INRIASophia AntipolisFrance

Personalised recommendations