Rethinking the Management of Secondary Schools in a Chaotic External Environment

  • Sa’adu Isa BasharEmail author
  • Yusuf Buhari
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Complexity book series (SPCOM)


Secondary schools as part of the totality of the open social system organizations depend largely on society for their inputs like students, teachers, finance and information as well as material resources to enable them produce outputs for the benefit of the wider society. Unfortunately, sometimes, the external environment becomes unstable, turbulent or chaotic as a result of economic, political, legal, demographic, technological, religious and or cultural factors which if not properly managed, may undermine the schools’ internal operations leading to poor output. It is to the interest of this paper therefore, to justify the school as an open social system, the school external environment and the ways in which factors of the external environment compel secondary schools to complex or chaotic management imbalance. At the same time, the paper recommends that the school managers should seek to adopt both internal and external coping strategies so as to remedy the situation for the production of highly meaningful outputs.


Management Secondary schools Complexity Chaos External environment 


  1. 1.
    Adesina OS (2012) The negative impact of globalization on Nigeria. Int J Humanit Soc Sci 2(15):193Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bala B, Umar M (2013) Managing education for economic security in era of globalization. A paper presented at the 32nd annual national conference of the Nigerian Association of Educational Administration and Planning (NAEAP) held at Bekandims Hotel and Resort, Tanke, Ilorin, Kwara State, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bashar SI (2014) Anomalies in the Nigerian primary schools’ leadership and centenary commemoration. A paper presented at the 1st international conference and centenary commemoration (ICCC 2014) held at main lecture theatre organized by the faculty of arts and social sciences, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bush K (2009) Fundamental practices of educational leaderships, 4th edn. King and Quenn Publishers, JalingoGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hooper A, Potter J (2001) Intelligent leadership: creating a passion for change, Revisedth edn. Random House Business Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hoy WK (2011) The school as a social system. Web slides, Retrieved on 13th November, 2014, from HM_PP_Slides_Ch1[compatibility mode]_Microsoft PowerPointGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hoy WK, Miskel CG (2008) Education administration: theory, research and practice, McGraw Hill international edn. McGraw Hill Companies, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jensen GE (1954) The school as a social system. Educ Res Bull 2(33):1, Taylor & Francis Ltd. Retrieved on 13th November, 2014, from
  9. 9.
    Lawal S, Ishaq IJ (2011) Domestic violence and its impact on the education of Nigerian children. Sokoto Educ Rev J 12:77Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Manga SD (2010) Theories of administration. Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, NigeriaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational FoundationsSokoto State UniversitySokotoNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Business EducationShehu Shagari College of EducationSokotoNigeria

Personalised recommendations