Advertisement

Nitric Oxide Deficit Is Part of the Maladaptive Paracrine-Autocrine Response of the Carotid Body to Intermittent Hypoxia in Sleep Apnea

  • M. L. FungEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 860)

Abstract

The carotid body functions to maintain the blood gas homeostasis, whereas anomalous carotid chemoreceptor activities could be pathogenic in patients with sleep apnea. Recent findings suggest an upregulation of renin-angiotensin system (Lam SY, Liu Y, Ng KM et al. Exp Physiol 99:220–231, 2014), which could lead to inflammation in the carotid body during intermittent hypoxia (Lam SY, Liu Y, Ng KM et al. Histochem Cell Biol 137:303–317, 2012). In addition, the level of nitric oxide detected in the carotid body was significantly decreased following intermittent hypoxia for days. These locally regulated mechanisms are proposed to be a significant part of the hypoxia-mediated maladaptive changes of the carotid body, which could play a role in the pathophysiological cascade of sleep apnea in patients with an overactivity of the chemoreflex.

Keywords

Chemoreceptor NO synthase Obstructive sleep apnea 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank Ms Meifang Li and Mr Y. M. Lo for their technical assistance. Studies were supported by grants from the Research Grants Council, Hong Kong (Grant No. HKU 766110 M, HKU 7510/06 M) and internal funding and conference grant from the University Research Committee, The University of Hong Kong.

References

  1. Campanucci VA, Zhang M, Vollmer C, Nurse CA (2006) Expression of multiple P2X receptors by glossopharyngeal neurons projecting to rat carotid body O2-chemoreceptors: role in nitric oxide-mediated efferent inhibition. J Neurosci 26:9482–9493Google Scholar
  2. Chugh DK, Katayama M, Mokashi A, Bebout DE, Ray DK, Lahiri S (1994) Nitric oxide-related inhibition of carotid chemosensory nerve activity in the cat. Respir Physiol 97:147–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Del Rio R, Moya EA, Iturriaga R (2011) Differential expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelin-1 and nitric oxide synthases in the rat carotid body exposed to intermittent hypoxia. Brain Res 1395:74–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fletcher EC (2001) Invited review: Physiological consequences of intermittent hypoxia: systemic blood pressure. J Appl Physiol 90:1600–1605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fung ML, Ye JS, Fung PC (2001) Acute hypoxia elevates nitric oxide generation in rat carotid body in vitro. Pflugers Arch 442:903–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gonzalez C, Almaraz L, Obeso A, Rigual R (1994) Carotid body chemoreceptors: from natural stimuli to sensory discharges. Physiol Rev 74:829–898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Lam SY, Liu Y, Ng KM et al (2012) Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces local inflammation of the rat carotid body via functional upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine pathways. Histochem Cell Biol 137:303–317PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Lam SY, Liu Y, Ng KM et al (2014) Up-regulation of a local renin-angiotensin system in the carotid body during chronic intermittent hypoxia. Exp Physiol 99:220–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Marcus NJ, Li YL, Bird CE, Schultz HD, Morgan BJ (2010) Chronic intermittent hypoxia augments chemoreflex control of sympathetic activity: role of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 171(1):36–45PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Moya EA, Alcayaga J, Iturriaga R (2012) NO modulation of carotid body chemoreception in health and disease. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 184(2):158–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Nurse CA (2014) Synaptic and paracrine mechanisms at carotid body arterial chemoreceptors. J Physiol 592(16):3419–3426PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Prabhakar NR, Fields RD, Baker T, Fletcher EC (2001) Intermittent hypoxia: cell to system. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 281:L524–L528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Wang ZZ, Stensaas LJ, Bredt DS, Dinger B, Fidone SJ (1994) Localization and actions of nitric oxide in the cat carotid body. Neuroscience 60:275–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ye JS, Tipoe GL, Fung PC, Fung ML (2002) Augmentation of hypoxia-induced nitric oxide generation in the rat carotid body adapted to chronic hypoxia: an involvement of constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthases. Pflugers Arch 444:178–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations