Effect of the Environment on the Sport Performance: Computer Supported Training - A Case Study for Cycling Sports

  • Alessandro PezzoliEmail author
  • Elena Cristofori
  • Matteo Moncalero
  • Fiorella Giacometto
  • Andrea Boscolo
  • Roberto Bellasio
  • Jacopo Padoan
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 464)


The effect of weather and environmental conditions on sports has been extensively studied over the last few years. Most of the outdoor sport activities, and in particular endurance sports, are strongly influenced by the variation of meteorological parameters.

Notwithstanding the conditions of the outdoor environment are often not considered when evaluating sport performances, as if they were not important, the sport performances are strongly related to the environmental conditions.

The aim of this paper is to assess how much atmospheric variables may influence both the athletic performance and the comfort level for different sport disciplines. The analysis of a case study, focused on the cycling sport, shows how the computer supported training can help the Coaches and the Athletes to consider simultaneously the sport performance and the environmental data.


Sport performance Environmental data Computer supported training Cycling 


  1. 1.
    Pezzoli, A., Baldacci, A., Cama, A., Faina, M., DallaVedova, D., Besi, M., Vercelli, G., Boscolo, A., Moncalero, M., Cristofori, E., Dalessandro, M.: Wind-wave interactions in enclosed basins: the impact on the sport of rowing. In: Clanet, C. (ed.) Sport Physics, pp. 139–151. Ecole Polytechnique de Paris, Paris (2013)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cantu, R.C., Micheli, L.J.: ACSM Guidelines for the Team Physician. Lea & Febiger Editors, Philadelphia (1991)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    El Helou, N., Tafflet, M., Berthelot, G., Tolaini, J., Marc, A., Guillame, M., Hausswirth, C., Toussaint, J.F.: Impact of environmental parameters on marathon running performance. PLoS One 7(5), e37407 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Olds, T.S., Norton, K.I., Lowe, E.L., Olive, S., Reay, F., Ly, S.: Modelling road-cycling performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 78(4), 1596–1611 (1995)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pezzoli, A., Cristofori, E., Gozzini, B., Marchisio, M., Padoan, J.: Analysis of the thermal comfort in cycling athletes. Proc. Eng. 34, 433–438 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pezzoli, A., Cristofori, E.: Analisi, previsioni e misure meteorologiche applicate agli sport equestri. In: 10th Congress “New Findings In Equine Practices”, pp. 38–43. Centro Internazionale del Cavallo, Italy (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pope, C.A., Dockery, D.W., Spengler, J.D., Raizenne, M.E.: Respiratory health and PM10 pollution. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 144(3), 668–674 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schwartz, J.: Air pollution and hospital admissions for respiratory disease. Epidemiology 7, 20–28 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pezzoli, A., Cristofori, E., Moncalero, M., Giacometto, F., Boscolo, A.: Effect of the environment on the sport performance. In: Proceeding of International Congress on Sports Science Research and Technology Support, pp. 167–170. SCITEPRESS, Lisbon (2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lobozewicz, T.: Meteorology in Sport. Sportverlag, Frankfurt (1981)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kay, J., Vamplew, W.: Weather Beaten: Sport in the British Climate. Mainstream Publishing, London (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haddon, W.: Options for the prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Isr. Med. J. 16, 45–65 (1980)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pezzoli, A., Vercelli, G., Boscolo, A., Dalla Vedova, D., Besi, M.: La connessione mente-corpo-ambiente e materiali: una strada nella ricerca della performance? In: XIX Congresso Nazionale AIPS – Il Comportamento Motorio e Sportivo tra Ricerca e Lavoro sul Campo, p. 54. Università degli Studi di Verona – Facoltà di Scienze Motorie, Verona (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arpino, M., Pezzoli, A.: La connsessione mente-corpo-ambiente e materiali nello sport: una strada nella ricerca della performance? SdS 95, 3–14 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bellasio, R., Maffeis, G., Scire, J., Longoni, M.G., Bianconi, R., Quaranta, N.: Algorithms to account for topographic shading effects and surface temperature dependence on terrain elevation in diagnostic meteorological models. Bound.-Layer Meteorol. 11, 595–614 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Leung, Y.K., Yip, K.M., Yeung, K.H.: Relationship between thermal index and mortality in Hong Kong. Meteorol. Appl. 15, 399–409 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Robaa, S.M.: Effect of urbanization and industrialization processes on outdoor thermal human comfort in Egypt. Atmos. Clim. Sci. 1, 100–112 (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wagner, W.: Surface tension. How temperature sensors can help Olympic ski racers. Meteorol. Tech. Int. 90–93 (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Opatkiewicz, A., Williams, T., Walters, C.: The effects of temperature, travel and time off on Major League soccer team performance. In: World Congress of Performance Analysis of Sport IX, Worcester, UK (2012)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brocherie, F., Girard, O., Millet, G.P.: The influence of environmental temperature on home advantage in Qatari International soccer matches. In: World Congress of Performance Analysis of Sport IX, Worcester, UK (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brocherie, F., Girard, O., Farooq, A., Millet, G.P.: Climatic influence on home advantage in Gulf Region Football. Statistical analysis using international match outcomes. In: Proceedings of International Congress on Sports Science Research and Technology Support. SCITEPRESS, Lisbon (2013)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pepino, A.: Abbigliamento e comfort termico nella performance sportiva. MSc thesis in sport science, S.U.I.S.M. – Università di Torino (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moncalero, M., Colonna, M., Pezzoli, A., Nicotra, M.: Pilot study for the evaluation of the thermal properties and moisture management on ski boots. In: Proceedings of International Congress on Sports Science Research and Technology Support, pp. 171–179. SCITEPRESS, Lisbon (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Pezzoli
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Elena Cristofori
    • 1
    • 2
  • Matteo Moncalero
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fiorella Giacometto
    • 2
    • 4
  • Andrea Boscolo
    • 2
  • Roberto Bellasio
    • 5
  • Jacopo Padoan
    • 6
  1. 1.DIST, Politecnico di Torino - Università di TorinoTurinItaly
  2. 2.R.U. MeteoSportDIST, Politecnico di Torino - Università di TorinoTurinItaly
  3. 3.DICAM, Alma Mater StudiorumUniversità di BolognaBolognaItaly
  4. 4.Ospedale CottolengoPiccola Casa della Divina ProvvidenzaTurinItaly
  5. 5.EnvirowareConcorezzoItaly
  6. 6.FLJ Sport SolutionTurinItaly

Personalised recommendations