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The Role of ATP-dependent Chromatin Remodeling in the Control of Epidermal Differentiation and Skin Stem Cell Activity

  • Gitali Ganguli-Indra
  • Arup K. IndraEmail author
Chapter
  • 372 Downloads
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are involved in chromatin remodeling thereby controlling gene expression. These multi-subunit containing complexes contain an ATPase of the SNF2 family that hydrolyzes ATP in order to modify or reshape histone-DNA interactions within nucleosomes. Several subfamilies of the SNF2 family have been identified in different species based on the status of their catalytic ATPase subunit. All of the SNF2 subfamily members, including SWI2/SNF2 (BRG1/BRM), ISWI and CHD/Mi-2β, play critical roles in the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis. The BRG1 chromatin remodeler is required for maintenance of bulge stem cells, hair cycling, normal skin homeostasis, and repair and regeneration processes. ACTL6a (actin-like 6a) modulates the SWI/SNF complex to suppress differentiation in the epidermis. Realignment of the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) locus, which occurs before activation of EDC genes that drive keratinocyte terminal differentiation, is coordinated by p63 by directly regulating the expression of BRG1. The combined effects of p63 and BRG1 control higher order chromatin remodeling, 3D-genomic organization and efficient expression of EDC genes in epidermal precursor cells during epidermal morphogenesis. BRG1 also suppresses p27kip1, allowing self-renewal of hair follicle bulge cells, and recruits the transcription factor NF-kB, which in turn activates Shh in matrix cells, promoting proliferation. Finally, Shh signaling through Gli activates BRG1 in bulge cells. Hence, BRG1 is necessary for Shh expression in both matrix and bulge compartments, and for hair regeneration and skin repair post-wounding. Mice with deletion of Mi-2β of the SNF2 family in the epidermis die perinatally and display severalphenotypes that differ between dorsal and ventral skin, suggesting spatio-temporal control of gene expression by Mi-2β in the epidermis. Mi-2β is also important for hair follicle morphogenesis and is necessary to reprogram epidermal basal cells to a hair follicle fate. Non-melanoma skin cancers in humans display mutations in the Brm gene following ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and BRM normally protects epidermal cells from UV irradiation-induced hyper-proliferation, even in the presence of a partial loss of p53, thereby establishing its role as a tumor suppressor.

Keywords

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes SWI2/SNF2 stem cells epidermis hair follicles 3D-genomic organization wound healing EDC BRG1/BRM 

Abbreviations

ACTL6a

Actin-like 6a

AER

Apical ectodermal ridge

ATP

Adenosine tri-phosphate

ATP-DCR

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling

BAF

BRG1/BRM associated factors

C elegans

Caenorhabditis.elegans

EDC

Epidermal differentiation complex

EPB

Epidermal permeability barrier

HF

Hair follicle;

HFSCs

Hair follicle stem cells

ISWI

Imitation SWI2

KLF4

Kruppel-like factor 4

SNF2

Sucrose Non Fermentation

SWI2

Mating type Switching 2

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of PharmacyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Molecular Cell Biology ProgramOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  3. 3.Knight Cancer InstituteOregon Health & Science University (OHSU)PortlandUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry and BiophysicsOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  5. 5.Linus Pauling InstituteOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  6. 6.Departments of DermatologyOHSUPortlandUSA

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