Advertisement

Lessons Learned on Developing Educational Systems Using a Hybrid User Centered Methodology

  • António Pedro CostaEmail author
  • Luis Paulo Reis
  • Maria João Loureiro
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 354)

Abstract

This paper describes the lessons learned on the development of educational applications using a Hybrid User Centered Development Methodology (HUCDM). This is a simple, iterative and incremental development process that has as building blocks the principles of User Centered Design (UCD), specified in the International Organization for Standardization 9241-210 - Ergonomics of Human -System Interaction (210: Human -centered design for interactive systems), together with practices and values from agile software development methods. The process consists of four main stages: specification/planning, design, implementation and maintenance. Prototyping and evaluation are carried out across the entire process. By developing a application in a Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) we were able to learn several lessons that may be useful for other educational software developers such as the need to involve the user in the evaluation (as verifier), but also to integrate him into the team, as informant or co-designer. This improves user satisfaction in comparison to involve the user only on the evaluation phase.

Keywords

Software Engineering Educational Software Development Methodologies Agile Methods Hybrid Methodology Hybrid for User Centered Development User Centered Design 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sommerville: Software Engineering. Addison Wesley, Boston (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Shneiderman, B., Plaisant, C.: Designing the User Interface- Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. Pearson Education (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Toth, K.: Which is the Right Software Process for Your Problem? Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Larman, C., Basili, V.R.: Iterative and Incremental Development: A Brief History. IEEE Comput. Soc. 36, 47–56 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Choosing the Appropriate Strategy for a Particular Software Development Project (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boehm, B.: Get ready for agile methods, with care. Computer (Long. Beach. Calif.) 35, 64–69 (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boehm, B., Turner, R.: Observations on balancing discipline and agility. In: Proc. Agil. Dev. Conf. 2003, ADC 2003, pp. 32–39 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Miguel, A.: Gestão de Projectos de Software. FCA - Editora de Informática (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Paelke, V., Nebe, K.: Integrating agile methods for mixed reality design space exploration. In: Proc. 7th ACM Conf. Des. Interact. Syst. - DIS 2008, pp. 240–249 (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beck, K.: Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change. Addison-Wesley (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bergin, J., Caristi, J., Dubinsky, Y., Hazzan, O., Williams, L.: Teaching Software Development Methods: The Case of Extreme Programming (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Keith, E.R.: Agile Software Development Processes - A Different Aprroach to Software Design, http://www.cs.nyu.edu/courses/spring03/V22.0474-001/lectures/agile/AgileDevelopmentDifferentApproach.pdf
  14. 14.
    Petersen, R.R., Wiil, U.K.: ASAP: A Planning Tool for Agile Software Development. In: Proceedings of the Nineteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (HT 2008), pp. 27–31. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bicudo, S.F., Nogueira, T., Oliveira, G.S., Machuca, V.F., Romero, J.P.F., Montenegro, E., Oliveira, C.E., Tanaka, N.F., de S. Prado, M., Leon, Í.O.R., Júnior, L.C.F.: Projecto e Desenvolvimento de Jogos Educativos em 3 Dimensões: a experiência da Univap Virtual. Presented at the (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Benitti, F.B.V., Schlindwein, L.M.: Processo de Desenvolvimento de Software Educacional: proposta e experimentação. CINTED-UFRGS. Novas Tecnol. na Educ. 3(1), 1–10 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Costa, A.P., Loureiro, M.J., Reis, L.P.: Do Modelo 3C de Colaboração ao Modelo 4C: Modelo de Análise de Processos de Desenvolvimento de Software Educativo. Rev. Lusófona Educ., 181–200 (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Abras, C., Maloney-krichmar, D., Preece, J.: User-Centered Design, pp. 1–14 (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    ISO9241-210: Ergonomics of Human-System Interaction (210: Human-centred design for interactive systems) (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Svanaes, D., Gulliksen, J.: Understanding the Context of Design - Towards Tactical User Centered Design. In: Proceedings of the 5th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Building Bridges (NordiCHI 2008), pp. 353–362. ACM, Lund (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Facer, K., Williamson, B.: Designing educational technologies with users - A handbook from Futurelab. Futurelab, Bristol (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kreitzberg: Managing for usability (1996)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Office of the e-Envoy: Quality Framework for UK Government Website Design: Usability issues for government websites (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Druin, A.: The Design of Children’s technology. Morgan Kaufmann Publ. Inc. (1999)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mao, J.-Y., Vredenburg, K., Smith, P.W., Carey, T.: User-centered design methods in practice: a survey of the state of the art (2001)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mao, J.-Y., Vredenburg, K., Smith, P.W., Carey, T.: The state of user-centered design practice. Commun. ACM 48, 105–109 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tsoukalas, I.A.: We!Design: A student-centred participatory methodology for the design of educational applications. Br. J. Educ. Technol. 39, 125–139 (2008)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nesset, V., Large, A.: Children in the information technology design process: A review of theories and their applications. Libr. Inf. Sci. Res. 26, 140–161 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maguire, M.: Methods to support human-centred design. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 55, 587–634 (2001)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baddoo, N., Hall, T.: De-motivators for software process improvement: an analysis of practitioners’ views. J. Syst. Softw. 66, 23–33 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vredenburg, K., Mao, J.-Y., Smith, P.W., Carey, T.: A survey of user-centered design practice. In: Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Hum. Factors Comput. Syst. Chang. Our world, Chang. Ourselves - CHI 2002, p. 471 (2002)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guerra, C.: Avaliação do Storyboard e da Metodologia de Desenvolvimento do Courseware Sere (2007)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    van der Duim, L., Andersson, J., Sinnema, M.: Good Practices for Educational Software Engineering Projects (2007)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Venturi, G., Troost, J.: Survey on the UCD integration in the industry. In: Proc. Third Nord. Conf. Human-Computer Interact. - Nord. 2004, pp. 449–452 (2004)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Marcus, A.: User-centered design in the enterprise. Interactions 12, 18 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Abbas, N., Gravell, A., Wills, G.B.: Historical Roots of Agile Methods: Where did “Agile Thinking” Come from? (2008)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Costa, A.P., Reis, L.P., Loureiro, M.J.: Hybrid User Centered Development Methodology: An Application to Educational Software Development. In: Cao, Y., Väljataga, T., Tang, J.K.T., Leung, H., Laanpere, M. (eds.) ICWL 2014 Workshops. LNCS, vol. 8699, pp. 243–253. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • António Pedro Costa
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Luis Paulo Reis
    • 2
    • 3
  • Maria João Loureiro
    • 1
  1. 1.CIDTFF - Research Centre “Didatics and Technology in Education of Trainers”, DE/UA - Education DepartmentUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.DSI/EEUM – Information Systems Department, School of EngineeringUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal
  3. 3.LIACC - Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science LaboratoryPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations