Advertisement

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of research on servant leadership. The origin of servant leadership is outlined primarily on the basis of the philosophical support found in the Bible. Based on key qualitative and quantitative studies of servant leadership, this chapter also presents a comparison of servant leadership and other value-laden leadership theories, including charismatic, transformational, authentic, and spiritual leadership. Next its predictive ability relative to major outcomes such as creativity and innovation, trust, organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction, and employee engagement is delineated. The development of the Servant Leadership Behavior Scale is briefly outlined in the subsequent section. Finally, the chapter concludes by addressing major objections typically erected against the servant leadership construct.

Keywords

Transformational Leadership Leadership Style Servant Leadership High Purpose Charismatic Leader 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Avolio, B. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 315–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnard, C. I. (1948). Organizations and management. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill‘s handbook of leadership (3rd ed.). New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, D. W. (1998). Leadership images from the New Testament. Carlisle: OM Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Bennis, W. G., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  8. Block, P. (1993). Stewardship: Choosing service over self-interest. San Francisco: Berrett Koehler.Google Scholar
  9. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  10. Butarbutar, I. D., Sendjaya, S., & Härtel, C. E. J. (2012). Servant leadership and citizenship behavior: The moderating effects of cultural orientations. Paper presented in at the 2012 Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  11. Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (1988). Organizational paradox and transformation. In R. E. Quinn & K. S. Cameron (Eds.), Paradox and transformation: Toward a theory of change in organization and management (pp. 12–18). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  12. Clegg, S. R., da Cunha, J. V., & e Cunha, M. P. (2002). Management paradoxes: A relational view. Human Relations, 55(5), 483–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Conger, J. A. (1991). The dark side of leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 19(1), 44–55.Google Scholar
  14. Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. (1987). Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review, 12, 637–647.Google Scholar
  15. Eva, N., & Sendjaya, S. (2013a). Servant leadership and job satisfaction: Moderating roles of decision making process and structure. Paper presented at the 2013 Academy of Management Meeting, Lake Buena Vista, FL.Google Scholar
  16. Eva, N., & Sendjaya, S. (2013b). Creating future leaders: An examination of youth leadership development in Australia. Education + Training, 55(6), 584–598.Google Scholar
  17. Ford, L. (1991). Transforming leadership: Jesus‘ way of creating vision, shaping values and empowering change. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.Google Scholar
  18. Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 14, 693–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Getz, G. A. (1984). Serving one another. Wheaton: Victor.Google Scholar
  20. Graham, J. (1991). Servant-leadership in organizations: Inspirational and moral. Leadership Quarterly, 2(2), 105–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant leadership. Mahwah: Paulist Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gronn, P. (1995). Greatness re-visited: The current obsession with transformational leadership. Leading & Managing, 1(1), 14–27.Google Scholar
  23. Hannah, S. T., Avolio, B. J., & Walumbwa, F. O. (2011). Relationships between authentic leadership, moral courage, and ethical and pro-social behaviors. Business Ethics Quarterly, 21(4), 555–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harris, M. J. (1999). Slave of Christ. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hesse, H. (1956). Journey to the East. London: P. Owen.Google Scholar
  26. Hicks, D. A. (2002). Spiritual and religious diversity in the workplace: Implications for leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 13(2), 379–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. House, R. J. (1977). A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership: The cutting edge (pp. 189–207). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Howell, J. M. (1988). Two faces of charisma: Socialized and personalized leadership in organizations. In J. A. Conger & R. N. Kanungo (Eds.), Charismatic leadership: The elusive factor in organizational effectiveness (pp. 213–236). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  29. Kant, I. (1964). Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals (H.J. Paton, Trans.). New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  30. Kets De Vries, M. F. R. (1989). Prisoners of leadership. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Kets De Vries, M. F. R. (1993). Leaders, fools, and impostors: Essays on the psychology of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  32. Kets De Vries, M. F. R. (1995). Life and death in the executive fast lane: Essays on irrational organizations and their leaders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Kurth, K. (2003). Spiritually renewing ourselves at work: Finding meaning through serving’. In R. A. Giacalone & C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance. New York: M.E. Sharp.Google Scholar
  34. Lewis, M. W. (2000). Exploring paradox: Toward a more comprehensive guide. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 760–776.Google Scholar
  35. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(2), 161–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Locyker, H. (1986). Nelson‘s illustrated Bible dictionary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.Google Scholar
  37. Luther, M. (1943). A treatise on Christian liberty. Vol 2 of the works of Martin Luther (p. 312). Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press.Google Scholar
  38. Marshall, T. (1991). Understanding leadership: Fresh perspectives on the essentials of New Testament leadership. Chichester: Sovereign World.Google Scholar
  39. Nair, K. (1994). A higher standard of leadership: Lessons from the life of Gandhi. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  40. Pekerti, A., & Sendjaya, S. (2010). Exploring servant leadership across cultures: Comparative study in Australia and Indonesia. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(5), 754–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Peterson, S. J., Galvin, B. M., & Lange, D. (2012). CEO servant leadership: Exploring executive characteristics and firm performance. Personnel Psychology, 65(3), 565–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Plett, S. (1997). Defining servant leadership. Steinbach Bible College Newsletter, p. 1–6.Google Scholar
  43. Poole, M. S., & Van de Ven, A. H. (1989). Using paradox to build management and organization theories. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 562–578.Google Scholar
  44. Robertson, A., & Plummer, A. (1914). A critical and exegetical commentary on the first epistle of St Paul to the Corinthians. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark.Google Scholar
  45. Robin, M., & Sendjaya, S. (2012). Leadership behaviors, employee engagement, and workplace behaviors: A multi-level perspective. Paper presented at the 3rd Global Servant Leadership Round Table, Melbourne, Australia, 21–22 June.Google Scholar
  46. Rossi, H.L. (2014, November 11). 7 CEOs with notably devout religious beliefs. Fortune.Google Scholar
  47. Schaubroeck, J., Lam, S. S. K., & Peng, A. C. (2011). Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences on team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 863–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schneider, S. K., & George, W. M. (2011). Servant leadership versus transformational leadership in voluntary service organizations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(1), 60–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sendjaya, S. (2011). Multidimensionality of servant leadership. In D. Van Dierendonck & K. Patterson (Eds.), Servant-leadership: Recent developments in theory and research (pp. 39–51). London: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  50. Sendjaya, S., & Cooper, B. (2011). Servant leadership behavior scale: A hierarchical model and test of construct validity. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(3), 416–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sendjaya, S., & Pekerti, A. A. (2010). Servant leadership as antecedent of trust organizations. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 31(7), 643–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sendjaya, S., Sarros, J. C., & Santora, J. C. (2008). Defining and measuring servant leadership behaviour in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 45(2), 402–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sendjaya, S., Pekerti, A., Härtel, C., Hirst, G., & Butarbutar, I. (2014). Are authentic leaders always moral? The role of Machiavellianism in the relationship between authentic leadership and morality. Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2351-0.Google Scholar
  54. Smith, B. N., Montagno, R. V., & Kuzmenko, T. N. (2004). Transformational and servant leadership: Content and contextual comparisons. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(4), 80–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stone, A. G., Russell, R., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational versus servant leadership: A difference in leader focus. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(4), 349–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thayer, J. (1996). Thayer‘s Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Reissueth ed.). Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers.Google Scholar
  57. Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1986). The transformational leader. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  58. Vine, W. E. (1985). Vine‘s expository dictionary of biblical words. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.Google Scholar
  59. Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34, 89–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Weber, M. (Ed.). (1947). The theory of social and economic organization. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  61. Westenholz, A. (1993). Paradoxical thinking and change in the frames of reference. Organization Studies, 14(1), 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yoshida, D., Sendjaya, S., Hirst, G., & Cooper, B. (2014). Servant leadership, creativity, and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 67(7), 1395–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yukl, G. (1989). Managerial leadership: A review of theory and research. Journal of Management, 15(2), 251–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yukl, G. (1990). Leadership in organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  65. Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 285–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sen Sendjaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ManagementMonash UniversityCaulfield EastAustralia

Personalised recommendations