Quantum Hall Effect and the Resistance Standard



This chapter opens with a presentation of the classical Drude theory of electrical conduction and a theory proposed by Landauer. Based on the assumption that electrical conduction can be modeled as transfer of electrons between two electron reservoirs, the Landauer theory proves to describe particularly well the electrical resistance in nanoscale conductors, i.e., in nanostructures. Surprisingly, this theory implies that the conductance (and resistance) of a nanostructure is independent of its material and temperature, and only depends on the dimensions of the sample, changing in a stepwise manner with a step of h/2e 2 representing the conductance quantum. The quantization of electrical and thermal conductance in nanostructures has been verified experimentally. Conductance quantization in nanostructures is used in the analysis of large-scale integration circuits, as required by the currently used 14 nm technology and future technologies.


Magnetic Flux Magnetic Induction Landau Level Charge Carrier Mobility Quantum Hall Effect 
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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Electronics and TelecommunicationsPoznan University of TechnologyPoznanPoland

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