Understanding the Role of Culture and Economic Conditions in Entrepreneurship

  • Francisco LiñánEmail author
  • Inmaculada Jaén
  • Francisco J. Ortega


This chapter focuses on the joint influence that cultural values (relatively stable informal institutions) and the (more rapidly changing) economic conditions play in explaining the total entrepreneurial activity (TEA) in countries with different levels of development. Data for 55 countries coming from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and the Schwartz Value Survey (Individualism and collectivism. Theory, method, and applications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 85–119; Comparative Sociology 5:137–182, 2006) are analyzed. General results indicate that the income level is negatively related to entrepreneurship, while the relation is positive for the income growth. Regarding culture, the results show that only in higher income countries, Autonomy values boost entrepreneurial activity. Additionally, higher entrepreneurship is found in countries where Egalitarianism predominates, and the effect becomes stronger as income level rises.


Entrepreneurial Activity Cultural Dimension Entrepreneurial Intention Nascent Entrepreneur Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco Liñán
    • 1
    Email author
  • Inmaculada Jaén
    • 1
  • Francisco J. Ortega
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Economics IUniversity of SevilleSevilleSpain

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