Advertisement

Radiotherapy in the Management of Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  • Michael Mix
  • Anurag K. SinghEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Treatment of advanced head and neck malignancies is generally a combined modality approach, often requiring surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy to obtain the best control rates. Oral cavity cancers follow this paradigm. While certain head and neck sites (e.g., oropharynx, larynx) have experienced drastic shifts toward nonoperative management, the oral cavity largely remains a surgical disease. Radiotherapy is frequently used in the adjuvant setting, to improve both local-regional control and survival. The overarching paradigm is for surgical resection followed by adjuvant therapy based on the presence of adverse pathologic features. Not all patients, however, are able or willing to undergo surgery; consequently, certain cases may be managed with (chemo- and/or) radiotherapy alone. This chapter will briefly review the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of oral cavity cancers.

Keywords

Overall Survival Oral Cavity External Beam Radiation Therapy National Comprehensive Cancer Network Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would gratefully acknowledge the tremendous assistance of Rachel Hackett, CMD, and Anthony Lister, DDS. Mrs. Hackett graciously provided the pictures and assisted in the acquisition of the images seen in this chapter. Dr. Lister created the customized dental devices shown in this chapter.

References

  1. 1.
    Fletcher GH. The role of irradiation in the management of squamous-cell carcinomas of the mouth and throat. Head Neck Surg. 1979;1:441–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Delclos L, Lindberg RD, Fletcher GH. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of mouth. Evaluation of interstitial radium therapy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1976;126:223–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang CC, Boyer A, Mendiondo O. Afterloading interstitial radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1976;1:365–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaanders JH, Fleming TJ, Ang KK, Maor MH, Peters LJ. Devices valuable in head and neck radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992;23:639–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gomez DR, Zhung JE, Gomez J, Chan K, Wu AJ, et al. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in postoperative treatment of oral cavity cancers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73:1096–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen WC, Hwang TZ, Wang WH, Lu CH, Chen CC, et al. Comparison between conventional and intensity-modulated post-operative radiotherapy for stage III and IV oral cavity cancer in terms of treatment results and toxicity. Oral Oncol. 2009;45:505–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen PY, Chen HH, Hsiao JR, Yang MW, Hsueh WT, et al. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy improves outcomes in postoperative patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Oral Oncol. 2012;48:747–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Daly ME, Le QT, Kozak MM, Maxim PG, Murphy JD, et al. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: patterns of failure and predictors of local control. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;80:1412–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nutting CM, Morden JP, Harrington KJ, Urbano TG, Bhide SA, et al. Parotid-sparing intensity modulated versus conventional radiotherapy in head and neck cancer (PARSPORT): a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12:127–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Toledano I, Graff P, Serre A, Boisselier P, Bensadoun RJ, et al. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer: results of the prospective study GORTEC 2004–03. Radiother Oncol. 2012;103:57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Studer G, Brown M, Bredell M, Graetz KW, Huber G, et al. Follow up after IMRT in oral cavity cancer: update. Radiat Oncol. 2012;7:84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chan AK, Huang SH, Le LW, Yu E, Dawson LA, et al. Postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy following surgery for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: patterns of failure. Oral Oncol. 2013;49:255–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Geretschlager A, Bojaxhiu B, Crowe S, Arnold A, Manser P, et al. Outcome and patterns of failure after postoperative intensity modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced or high-risk oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Radiat Oncol. 2012;7:175.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zeidan OA, Langen KM, Meeks SL, Manon RR, Wagner TH, et al. Evaluation of image-guidance protocols in the treatment of head and neck cancers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67:670–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hong TS, Tome WA, Chappell RJ, Chinnaiyan P, Mehta MP, et al. The impact of daily setup variations on head-and-neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61:779–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Heron DE, Rwigema JC, Gibson MK, Burton SA, Quinn AE, et al. Concurrent cetuximab with stereotactic body radiotherapy for recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a single institution matched case-control study. Am J Clin Oncol. 2011;34:165–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lartigau EF, Tresch E, Thariat J, Graff P, Coche-Dequeant B, et al. Multi institutional phase II study of concomitant stereotactic reirradiation and cetuximab for recurrent head and neck cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2013;109:281–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kawaguchi K, Sato K, Yamada H, Horie A, Nomura T, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery in combination with chemotherapy as primary treatment for head and neck cancer. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:461–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Amini A, McDermott JD, Gan G, Bhatia S, Sumner W, et al. Stereotactic body radiotherapy as primary therapy for head and neck cancer in the elderly or patients with poor performance. Front Oncol. 2014;4:274.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vargo JA, Ferris RL, Clump DA, Heron DE. Stereotactic body radiotherapy as primary treatment for elderly patients with medically inoperable head and neck cancer. Front Oncol. 2014;4:214.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    George JR, Yom SS, Wang SJ. Improved outcomes in adjuvant radiotherapy for oral cavity carcinoma at an academic center: a matched-pair analysis. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:1603–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Amit M, Yen TC, Liao CT, Chaturvedi P, Agarwal JP, et al. Improvement in survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: an international collaborative study. Cancer. 2013;119:4242–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sher DJ, Thotakura V, Balboni TA, Norris Jr CM, Haddad RI, et al. Treatment of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with adjuvant or definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:e215–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lin CY, Wang HM, Kang CJ, Lee LY, Huang SF, et al. Primary tumor site as a predictor of treatment outcome for definitive radiotherapy of advanced-stage oral cavity cancers. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78:1011–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cohen EE, Baru J, Huo D, Haraf DJ, Crowley M, et al. Efficacy and safety of treating T4 oral cavity tumors with primary chemoradiotherapy. Head Neck. 2009;31:1013–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gore SM, Crombie AK, Batstone MD, Clark JR. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy compared with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2015;37(4):518–23. doi: 10.1002/hed.23626. Epub 2014 May 2.
  27. 27.
    Lindberg R. Distribution of cervical lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Cancer. 1972;29:1446–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chronowski GM, Garden AS, Morrison WH, Frank SJ, Schwartz DL, et al. Unilateral radiotherapy for the treatment of tonsil cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83:204–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    O’Sullivan B, Warde P, Grice B, Goh C, Payne D, et al. The benefits and pitfalls of ipsilateral radiotherapy in carcinoma of the tonsillar region. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;51:332–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cerezo L, Martin M, Lopez M, Marin A, Gomez A. Ipsilateral irradiation for well lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx: results on tumor control and xerostomia. Radiat Oncol. 2009;4:33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lin CY, Lee LY, Huang SF, Kang CJ, Fan KH, et al. Treatment outcome of combined modalities for buccal cancers: unilateral or bilateral neck radiation? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;70:1373–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vergeer MR, Doornaert PA, Jonkman A, Kaanders JH, van den Ende PL, et al. Ipsilateral irradiation for oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with primary surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78:682–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fu KK, Pajak TF, Trotti A, Jones CU, Spencer SA, et al. A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III randomized study to compare hyperfractionation and two variants of accelerated fractionation to standard fractionation radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: first report of RTOG 9003. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;48:7–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Beitler JJ, Zhang Q, Fu KK, Trotti A, Spencer SA, et al. Final results of local-regional control and late toxicity of RTOG 9003: a randomized trial of altered fractionation radiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014;89:13–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Overgaard J, Mohanti BK, Begum N, Ali R, Agarwal JP, et al. Five versus six fractions of radiotherapy per week for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (IAEA-ACC study): a randomised, multicentre trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:553–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bourhis J, Sire C, Graff P, Gregoire V, Maingon P, et al. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy versus acceleration of radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (GORTEC 99–02): an open-label phase 3 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:145–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Trotti A, Klotch D, Endicott J, Ridley M, Cantor A. Postoperative accelerated radiotherapy in high-risk squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: long-term results of a prospective trial. Head Neck. 1998;20:119–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Moon SH, Jung YS, Ryu JS, Choi SW, Park JY, et al. Outcomes of postoperative simultaneous modulated accelerated radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:140–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tupchong L, Scott CB, Blitzer PH, Marcial VA, Lowry LD, et al. Randomized study of preoperative versus postoperative radiation therapy in advanced head and neck carcinoma: long-term follow-up of RTOG study 73–03. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1991;20:21–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kreppel M, Eich HT, Bruggenolte C, Dreiseidler T, Rothamel D, et al. Preoperative vs. postoperative radiochemotherapy in patients with N2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Oral Oncol. 2012;48:1019–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kirita T, Yamanaka Y, Imai Y, Yamakawa N, Aoki K, et al. Preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for stages II-IV oral squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective analysis and the future possibility of this treatment strategy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;41:421–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Klug C, Berzaczy D, Voracek M, Millesi W. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy in the management of oral cancer: a review. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2008;36:75–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Posner MR, Hershock DM, Blajman CR, Mickiewicz E, Winquist E, et al. Cisplatin and fluorouracil alone or with docetaxel in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1705–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vermorken JB, Remenar E, van Herpen C, Gorlia T, Mesia R, et al. Cisplatin, fluorouracil, and docetaxel in unresectable head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1695–704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhong LP, Zhang CP, Ren GX, Guo W, William Jr WN, et al. Randomized phase III trial of induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil followed by surgery versus up-front surgery in locally advanced resectable oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:744–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) Head and Neck Cancers. Version I. 2015. Available at: NCCN.org.
  47. 47.
    Lee N, Chan K, Bekelman JE, Zhung J, Mechalakos J, et al. Salvage re-irradiation for recurrent head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;68:731–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Spencer SA, Harris J, Wheeler RH, Machtay M, Schultz C, et al. Final report of RTOG 9610, a multi-institutional trial of reirradiation and chemotherapy for unresectable recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck. 2008;30:281–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tanvetyanon T, Padhya T, McCaffrey J, Zhu W, Boulware D, et al. Prognostic factors for survival after salvage reirradiation of head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1983–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Peters LJ, Goepfert H, Ang KK, Byers RM, Maor MH, et al. Evaluation of the dose for postoperative radiation therapy of head and neck cancer: first report of a prospective randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1993;26:3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ang KK, Trotti A, Brown BW, Garden AS, Foote RL, et al. Randomized trial addressing risk features and time factors of surgery plus radiotherapy in advanced head-and-neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;51:571–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bernier J, Domenge C, Ozsahin M, Matuszewska K, Lefebvre JL, et al. Postoperative irradiation with or without concomitant chemotherapy for for locally advanced head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1945–52.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cooper JS, Pajak TF, Forastiere AA, Jacobs J, Campbell BH, et al. Postoperative concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-risk squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1937–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bernier J, Cooper JS, Pajak TF, van Glabbeke M, Bourhis J, et al. Defining risk levels in locally advanced head and neck cancers: a comparative analysis of concurrent postoperative radiation plus chemotherapy trials of the EORTC (#22931) and RTOG (# 9501). Head Neck. 2005;27:843–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Brown JS, Blackburn TK, Woolgar JA, Lowe D, Errington RD, et al. A comparison of outcomes for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma at intermediate risk of recurrence treated by surgery alone or with post-operative radiotherapy. Oral Oncol. 2007;43:764–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Murthy V, Agarwal JP, Laskar SG, Gupta T, Budrukkar A, et al. Analysis of prognostic factors in 1180 patients with oral cavity primary cancer treated with definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy. J Cancer Res Ther. 2010;6:282–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zhang H, Dziegielewski PT, Biron VL, Szudek J, Al-Qahatani KH, et al. Survival outcomes of patients with advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma treated with multimodal therapy: a multi-institutional analysis. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;42:30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Suwinski R, Sowa A, Rutkowski T, Wydmanski J, Tarnawski R, et al. Time factor in postoperative radiotherapy: a multivariate locoregional control analysis in 868 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;56:399–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Leon X, de Vega M, Orus C, Moran J, Verges J, et al. The effect of waiting time on local control and survival in head and neck carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2003;66:277–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Langendijk JA, de Jong MA, Leemans CR, de Bree R, Smeele LE, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: the importance of the overall treatment time. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;57:693–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Parsons JT, Mendenhall WM, Stringer SP, Cassisi NJ, Million RR. An analysis of factors influencing the outcome of postoperative irradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1997;39:137–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fan KH, Wang HM, Kang CJ, Lee LY, Huang SF, et al. Treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: coexistence of multiple minor risk factors results in higher recurrence rates. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77:1024–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Liao CT, Lin CY, Fan KH, Huang SF, Chen IH, et al. Identification of a high-risk subgroup of patients with resected pT3 oral cavity cancer in need of postoperative adjuvant therapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18:2569–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Liao CT, Lin CY, Fan KH, Wang HM, Ng SH, et al. Identification of a high-risk group among patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and pT1-2N0 disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:284–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Loree TR, Strong EW. Significance of positive margins in oral cavity squamous carcinoma. Am J Surg. 1990;160:410–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zelefsky MJ, Harrison LB, Fass DE, Armstrong JG, Shah JP, et al. Postoperative radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx: impact of therapy on patients with positive surgical margins. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1993;25:17–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ch’ng S, Corbett-Burns S, Stanton N, Gao K, Shannon K, et al. Close margin alone does not warrant postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer. 2013;119:2427–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gross ND, Patel SG, Carvalho AL, Chu PY, Kowalski LP, et al. Nomogram for deciding adjuvant treatment after surgery for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2008;30:1352–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wang SJ, Patel SG, Shah JP, Goldstein DP, Irish JC, et al. An oral cavity carcinoma nomogram to predict benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;139:554–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stranc MF, Fogel M, Dische S. Comparison of lip function: surgery vs radiotherapy. Br J Plast Surg. 1987;40:598–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tombolini V, Bonanni A, Valeriani M, Zurlo A, Vitturini A. Brachytherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. The experience of the Institute of Radiology of the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. Tumori. 1998;84:478–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Babington S, Veness MJ, Cakir B, Gebski VJ, Morgan GJ. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lip: is there a role for adjuvant radiotherapy in improving local control following incomplete or inadequate excision? ANZ J Surg. 2003;73:621–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ang KK, Garden AS. Radiotherapy for head and neck cancers: indications and techniques. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012. vi, 292 p.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Love R, Stewart IF, Coy P. Upper alveolar carcinoma – a 30 year survey. J Otolaryngol. 1977;6:393–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Alcock CJ, Paine CH, Weatherburn H. Interstitial radiotherapy in treatment of superficial tumours of the lower alveolar ridge. Clin Radiol. 1984;35:363–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lin CS, Jen YM, Cheng MF, Lin YS, Su WF, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: an aggressive cancer requiring multimodality treatment. Head Neck. 2006;28:150–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bachar G, Goldstein DP, Barker E, Lea J, O’Sullivan B, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: outcomes of treatment in the modern era. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:1552–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Jan JC, Hsu WH, Liu SA, Wong YK, Poon CK, et al. Prognostic factors in patients with buccal squamous cell carcinoma: 10-year experience. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69:396–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dixit S, Vyas RK, Toparani RB, Baboo HA, Patel DD. Surgery versus surgery and postoperative radiotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: a comparative study. Ann Surg Oncol. 1998;5:502–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fang FM, Leung SW, Huang CC, Liu YT, Wang CJ, et al. Combined-modality therapy for squamous carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: treatment results and prognostic factors. Head Neck. 1997;19:506–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mishra RC, Singh DN, Mishra TK. Post-operative radiotherapy in carcinoma of buccal mucosa, a prospective randomized trial. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1996;22:502–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lo K, Fletcher GH, Byers RM, Fields RS, Peters LJ, et al. Results of irradiation in the squamous cell carcinomas of the anterior faucial pillar-retromolar trigone. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1987;13:969–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Huang CJ, Chao KS, Tsai J, Simpson JR, Haughey B, et al. Cancer of retromolar trigone: long-term radiation therapy outcome. Head Neck. 2001;23:758–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Amdur RJ, Werning JW, Villaret DB. Retromolar trigone squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy alone or combined with surgery. Cancer. 2005;103:2320–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ayad T, Gelinas M, Guertin L, Larochelle D, Del Vecchio P, et al. Retromolar trigone carcinoma treated by primary radiation therapy: an alternative to the primary surgical approach. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;131:576–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bayman NA, Sykes AJ, Bonington S, Blackburn T, Patel M, et al. Primary radiotherapy for carcinoma of the retromolar trigone: a useful alternative to surgery. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2010;22:119–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Pernot M, Hoffstetter S, Peiffert D, Luporsi E, Marchal C, et al. Epidermoid carcinomas of the floor of mouth treated by exclusive irradiation: statistical study of a series of 207 cases. Radiother Oncol. 1995;35:177–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Matsumoto S, Takeda M, Shibuya H, Suzuki S. T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinomas of the floor of the mouth: results of brachytherapy mainly using 198Au grains. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1996;34:833–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Inoue T, Inoue T, Yamazaki H, Koizumi M, Kagawa K, et al. High dose rate versus low dose rate interstitial radiotherapy for carcinoma of the floor of mouth. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998;41:53–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rodgers Jr LW, Stringer SP, Mendenhall WM, Parsons JT, Cassisi NJ, et al. Management of squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of mouth. Head Neck. 1993;15:16–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cole DA, Patel PM, Matar JR, Kenady DE, Maruyama Y. Floor of the mouth cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1994;120:260–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hicks Jr WL, Loree TR, Garcia RI, Maamoun S, Marshall D, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of mouth: a 20-year review. Head Neck. 1997;19:400–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Smee RI, Broadley K, Bridger GP, Williams J. Floor of mouth carcinoma: surgery still the dominant mode of treatment. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2012;56:338–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Yorozu A, Sykes AJ, Slevin NJ. Carcinoma of the hard palate treated with radiotherapy: a retrospective review of 31 cases. Oral Oncol. 2001;37:493–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Yamazaki H, Inoue T, Yoshida K, Imai A, Yoshioka Y, et al. Influence of age on the results of brachytherapy for early tongue cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;49:931–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Inoue T, Inoue T, Yoshida K, Yoshioka Y, Shimamoto S, et al. Phase III trial of high- vs. low-dose-rate interstitial radiotherapy for early mobile tongue cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;51:171–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hosokawa Y, Shirato H, Nishioka T, Tsuchiya K, Chang TC, et al. Effect of treatment time on outcome of radiotherapy for oral tongue carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;57:71–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Oskam IM, Verdonck-de Leeuw IM, Aaronson NK, Kuik DJ, de Bree R, et al. Quality of life as predictor of survival: a prospective study on patients treated with combined surgery and radiotherapy for advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2010;97:258–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bekiroglu F, Ghazali N, Laycock R, Katre C, Lowe D, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy and health-related quality of life of patients at intermediate risk of recurrence following primary surgery for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2011;47:967–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Thomas L, Moore EJ, Olsen KD, Kasperbauer JL. Long-term quality of life in young adults treated for oral cavity squamous cell cancer. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2012;121:395–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ch’ng S, Oates J, Gao K, Foo K, Davies S, et al. Prospective quality of life assessment between treatment groups for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2014;36:834–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Eisbruch A. Radiotherapy: IMRT reduces xerostomia and potentially improves QoL. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2009;6:567–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wang ZH, Yan C, Zhang ZY, Zhang CP, Hu HS, et al. Impact of salivary gland dosimetry on post-IMRT recovery of saliva output and xerostomia grade for head-and-neck cancer patients treated with or without contralateral submandibular gland sparing: a longitudinal study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:1479–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Wang ZH, Yan C, Zhang ZY, Zhang CP, Hu HS, et al. Outcomes and xerostomia after postoperative radiotherapy for oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. Head Neck. 2014;36:1467–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Glanzmann C, Gratz KW. Radionecrosis of the mandibula: a retrospective analysis of the incidence and risk factors. Radiother Oncol. 1995;36:94–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Niewald M, Barbie O, Schnabel K, Engel M, Schedler M, et al. Risk factors and dose-effect relationship for osteoradionecrosis after hyperfractionated and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for oral cancer. Br J Radiol. 1996;69:847–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lozza L, Cerrotta A, Gardani G, De Marie M, Di Russo A, et al. Analysis of risk factors for mandibular bone radionecrosis after exclusive low dose-rate brachytherapy for oral cancer. Radiother Oncol. 1997;44:143–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Studer G, Studer SP, Zwahlen RA, Huguenin P, Gratz KW, et al. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible: minimized risk profile following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Strahlenther Onkol. 2006;182:283–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lee IJ, Koom WS, Lee CG, Kim YB, Yoo SW, et al. Risk factors and dose-effect relationship for mandibular osteoradionecrosis in oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:1084–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Annane D, Depondt J, Aubert P, Villart M, Gehanno P, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for radionecrosis of the jaw: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial from the ORN96 study group. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:4893–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hashibe M, Ritz B, Le AD, Li G, Sankaranarayanan R, et al. Radiotherapy for oral cancer as a risk factor for second primary cancers. Cancer Lett. 2005;220:185–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rusthoven K, Chen C, Raben D, Kavanagh B. Use of external beam radiotherapy is associated with reduced incidence of second primary head and neck cancer: a SEER database analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;71:192–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Farhadieh RD, Otahal P, Rees CG, Salardini A, Russell P, et al. Radiotherapy is not associated with an increased rate of Second Primary Tumours in Oral Squamous Carcinoma: a study of 370 patients. Oral Oncol. 2009;45:941–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Speksnijder CM, van der Bilt A, van der Glas HW, Koole R, Merkx MA. Tongue function in patients treated for malignancies in tongue and/or floor of mouth; a one year prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;40:1388–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lazarus C, Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Helenowski IB, et al. Effects of radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy on tongue strength and swallowing in patients with oral cancer. Head Neck. 2007;29:632–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Speksnijder CM, van der Bilt A, Abbink JH, Merkx MA, Koole R. Mastication in patients treated for malignancies in tongue and/or floor of mouth: A 1-year prospective study. Head Neck. 2011;33:1013–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Qian W, Haight J, Poon I, Enepekides D, Higgins KM. Sleep apnea in patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer after surgery and chemoradiation therapy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;143:248–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Dwivedi RC, Kazi RA, Agrawal N, Nutting CM, Clarke PM, et al. Evaluation of speech outcomes following treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009;35:417–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Radiation MedicineRoswell Park Cancer InstituteBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations