• Stephen Bruce Sontz
Part of the Universitext book series (UTX)


In this chapter we will find certain solutions of the Yang–Mills equations that were given in the now-classic paper [3] by the four authors Belavin, Polyakov, Schwartz, and Tyupkin. Those solutions were called pseudoparticles in that paper, but this is now generally considered to be antiquated terminology. Rather, they are currently called BPST instantons.


  1. 3.
    A.A. Belavin, A.M. Polyakov, A.S. Schwartz, and Y.S. Tyupkin, Pseudoparticle solutions of the Yang–Mills equations, Phys. Lett. 59B, no. 1, (1975) 85–87.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 6.
    R.W.R. Darling, Differential Forms and Connections, Cambridge University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  3. 38.
    G.L. Naber, Topology, Geometry, and Gauge Fields: Foundations, Springer-Verlag, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. 39.
    G.L. Naber, Topology, Geometry, and Gauge Fields: Interactions, Springer-Verlag, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Bruce Sontz
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas, A.C.GuanajuatoMexico

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