Advertisement

Energy Harvesting Opportunities for Low-Power Radios

  • Saurav Bandyopadhyay
  • Yogesh K. Ramadass
Part of the Integrated Circuits and Systems book series (ICIR)

Abstract

Advancements in integrated circuit design have made it possible to have ultra-low-power wireless sensor nodes for health monitoring, smart buildings, industrial automation and for the automotive industry. These low power circuits generally have an Analog Front End (AFE) to sense weak signals, ADCs to digitize the sensed signals, microcontrollers for processing and low power radios for transmitting the low data rate information to a base station. These wireless sensors may be deployed in remote locations or may be in large numbers making battery replacement challenging. By harvesting the ambient energy, it is possible to power these systems and achieve near perpetual operation making battery replacement unnecessary. However, in order for these systems to extract energy from harvesters, these circuits need to not only be ultra-low-power themselves but they also need to ensure maximum available power is always extracted from the energy harvester. In this chapter, the basics of energy harvesting systems will be discussed with a focus on low power design techniques, maximum power extraction and battery management in these systems.

Keywords

Energy harvesting Wireless sensors IoT Photovoltaic Thermoelectric Piezoelectric BQ25570 Battery charger 

References

  1. 1.
    M. Yip, J.L. Bohorquez, A.P. Chandrakasan, A 0.6 V 2.9μW mixed-signal front-end for ECG monitoring, in IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (June 2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F.M. Yaul, A.P. Chandrakasan, A 10b 0.6 nW SAR ADC with data-dependent energy savings using LSB-first successive approximation, in IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference (February 2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.Y. Kwong, Y.K. Ramadass, N. Verma, M. Koesler, K. Huber, H. Moormann, A.P. Chandrakasan, A 65 nm Sub-Vt microcontroller with integrated SRAM and switched-capacitor DC-DC converter, in IEEE International Solid State Circuits Conference (February 2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Paidimarri, P. Nadeau, P. Mercier, A. Chandrakasan, A 440 pJ/bit 1 Mb/s 2.4 GHz multi-channel FBAR-based TX and an integrated pulse-shaping PA, in IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits (June 2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Nadeau, A. Paidimarri, P. Mercier, A. Chandrakasan, Multi-channel 180 pJ/bit 2.4 GHz FBAR-based receiver, IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium (June 2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Gratzel, Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 365, 993–1005 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Lim, C.-K. Huang, M. Ryan, G.J. Snyder, J. Herman, J.-P. Fleurial, MEMS/ECD methods for making Bi2−xSbxTe3 thermoelectric devices. NASA Technical Reports (July 2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N.S. Shenck, J.A. Paradiso, Energy harvesting with shoe-mounted piezoelectrics. IEEE Micro 21, 30–42 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.J.M. Vuller, R. van Schaijk, I. Doms, C. Van Hoof, R. Mertens, Miropower energy harvesting. Solid State Electron. 53, 684–693 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y.K. Ramadass, A.P. Chandrakasan, An efficient piezoelectric energy harvesting interface circuit using a bias-flip rectifier and shared inductor, IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 45(1), 189–204 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G.K. Ottman, H.F. Hofmann, A.C. Bhatt and G.A. Lesieutre, Adaptive piezoelectric energy harvesting circuit for wireless remote power supply. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 17(5), 669–676 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    N.J. Guilar, R. Amirtharajah, P.J. Hurst, S.H. Lewis, An energy-aware multiple-input power supply with charge recovery for energy harvesting applications. IEEE ISSCC Digest of Technical Papers (February 2009), pp. 298–299Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y.K. Ramadass, A.P. Chandrakasan, A battery-less thermoelectric energy harvesting interface circuit with 35 mV startup voltage. IEEE J. Solid State Circuits 46(1), 333–341 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. Kadirvel, Y. Ramadass, U. Lyles, J. Carpenter, V. Ivanov, V. McNeil, A. Chandrakasan, B. Lum-Shue-Chan, A 330 nA energy-harvesting charger with battery management for solar and thermoelectric energy harvesting, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC) (February 2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Bandyopadhyay, A.P. Chandarkasan, Platform architecture for solar, thermal, and vibration energy combining with MPPT and single inductor. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(9), 2199–2215 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Chen, G.A. Rincon-Mora, Accurate, compact, and power-efficient Li-ion battery charger circuit. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Express Briefs 53(11), 1180,1184 (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Texas Instruments Datasheet BQ25570. Available Online-http://www.ti.com/product/bq25570Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Linear Technology Datasheet LTC3108. Available Online-http://www.linear.com/product/LTC3108Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maxim Integrated Datasheet MAX17710. Available Online-http://datasheets.maximintegrated.com/en/ds/MAX17710.pdfGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas InstrumentsDallasUSA
  2. 2.Texas InstrumentsSanta ClaraUSA

Personalised recommendations