Advertisement

CdTe Solar Cells

  • Matevž BokaličEmail author
  • Marko Topič
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering book series (BRIEFSELECTRIC)

Abstract

In this chapter CdTe solar cells are presented as a typical thin-film photovoltaic technology. In the first part we describe their structure and fabrication together with their operation as required for understanding spatial inhomogeneities. A SPICE model of the cell is designed and described. The second part deals with current-voltage and electroluminescence characterisation of a cell. Electroluminescence image properties are explained. Characterisation includes back contact position dependence, forward bias current dependence, temperature dependence, and extracting the resistive parameters of the cell using SPICE simulations.

Keywords

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) Electroluminescence SPICE simulations Characterisation Temperature dependence 

References

  1. 1.
    Green MA, Emery K, Hishikawa Y, Warta W, Dunlop ED (2014) Solar cell efficiency tables (version 44). Prog Photovoltaics Res Appl 22:701–710. doi: 10.1002/pip.2525 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    First solar (2014) First solar series 4TM PV module datasheetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jäger-Waldau A (2013) PV status report 2013, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and TransportGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim H, Cha K, Fthenakis VM, Sinha P, Hur T (2014) Life cycle assessment of cadmium telluride photovoltaic (CdTe PV) systems. Sol Energy 103:78–88. doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2014.02.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hering Garret (2011) Year of the tiger. Photon Int 3:186–218Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jäger-Waldau A (2012) PV status report 2012, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and TransportGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Seeking alpha, Is first solar mining its own tellurium. http://seekingalpha.com/article/275817-is-first-solar-mining-its-own-tellurium. Accessed 3 Apr 2013
  8. 8.
    Stafiej JS, Claessens P, White CW (1999) Tellurium extraction from copper electrorefining slimesGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zayed J, Philippe S (2009) Acute oral and inhalation toxicities in rats with cadmium telluride. Int J Toxicol 28:259–265. doi: 10.1177/1091581809337630 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fthenakis VM, Fuhrmann M, Heiser J, Lanzirotti A, Fitts J, Wang W (2005) Emissions and encapsulation of cadmium in CdTe PV modules during fires. Prog Photovoltaics Res Appl 13:713–723. doi: 10.1002/pip.624 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Luque A, Hegedus S (2011) Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Demtsu SH, Sites JR (2006) Effect of back-contact barrier on thin-film CdTe solar cells. Thin Solid Films 510:320–324. doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2006.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kephart JM, Geisthardt R, Sampath WS (2012) Sputtered, oxygenated CdS window layers for higher current in CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells. In: Proceedings of 38th IEEE photovoltaic specialists conference (PVSC), pp 000854–000858Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koishiyev GT (2010) Analysis of impact of non-uniformities on thin-film solar cells and modules with 2-D simulations. PhD thesis, Colorado State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Price KJ, Vasko A, Gorrelland L, Compaan AD (2003) Temperature-dependent electroluminescence from CdTe/CdS solar cells. MRS Online Proc Libr 763:195–200Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bokalič M, Raguse J, Sites JR, Topič M (2013) Analysis of electroluminescence images in small-area circular CdTe solar cells. J Appl Phys 114:123102. doi: 10.1063/1.4820392 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rau U (2007) Reciprocity relation between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electroluminescent emission of solar cells. Phys Rev B 76:085303. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.085303 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    First solar (2012) FS series 3TM PV module datasheetGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fonthal G, Tirado-Mejı́a L, Marı́n-Hurtado JI, Ariza-Calderón H, Mendoza-Alvarez JG (2000) Temperature dependence of the band gap energy of crystalline CdTe. J Phy Chem Solids 61:579–583. doi: 10.1016/S0022-3697(99)00254-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations