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Biodiversity of Lianas and Their Functional Traits in Tropical Forests of Peninsular India

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Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB,volume 5)

Abstract

The present study was aimed to investigate the diversity and functional traits of lianas in four tropical forest types of peninsular India. The work also intended to study the variation in the proportion of lianas with trees along an altitudinal gradient and to compare the functional traits of lianas and trees sharing similar environmental conditions. All lianas ≥ 1.5 cm diameter and trees ≥ 10 cm diameter at breast height were measured and included the inventory. A total of 237 liana species were enumerated across the four forest types. The species richness of lianas per hectare was maximum at semi-evergreen forest (31 ± 5.3) and minimum at dry evergreen forest sites (21 ± 3.9). Semi-evergreen forest sites of Eastern Ghats also had the highest density (648 ± 152.7 ha−1) of liana stems and wet-evergreen forest sites of Western Ghats registered the lowest (261 ± 86.7 ha−1). Dry evergreen forest sites on the Coromandel Coast recorded the highest basal area (0.75 ± 0.44 m2 ha−1) and the above ground biomass (22.77 ± 19.1 Mg ha−1) of lianas across the study sites followed by the semi-evergreen forest sites (0.69 ± 0.3 m2 ha−1 and 10.01 ± 6.2 Mg ha−1). The proportion of liana species richness to total woody species decreased along the altitudinal gradient in the present study. Majority of lianas in the study sites were brevi-deciduous by plant type except in wet-evergreen forest sites. Stem twining was the chief climbing mechanism by species richness and scramblers formed the most abundant liana group by abundance. Majority of lianas had microphyllous leaves, whereas trees had mesophyllous leaves as their predominant leaf type. Flowers of SEF and SDF sites were mostly conspicuous, while the flowers of DEF sites were largely inconspicuous. Dispersal by animals (biotic) formed the major diaspore dispersal strategy of lianas in four tropical forest types of peninsular India.

Keywords

  • Biodiversity
  • Climbing mechanism
  • Eastern Ghats
  • Functional traits
  • Lianas
  • Plant physiognomic type
  • Western Ghats

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Correspondence to N. Parthasarathy .

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Appendix

Appendix

List of 237 liana species enumerated in peninsular Indian tropical forests with their distribution in different forest types (1 Wet evergreen forest (WEF), 2 Semi-evergreen forest (SEF), 3 Seasonally dry forest (SDF), 4 Dry evergreen forest (DEF) and their functional traits (Plant type: Bd brevi-deciduous, D deciduous, E evergreen. Climbing mechanism: St stem twiner, Tc tendril climber, Hc hook climber, SA scrambler-armed, SU scrambler-unarmed, Rc root climber. Leaf type: Mi microphyll (2.25–20.25 cm2), No notophyll (20.25–45 cm2), Me mesophyll (45–182.25 cm2), Ma macrophyll (182.25–1,640.2 cm2). Flower type: Cn conspicuous, Ic inconspicuous. Dispersal mode: Bi biotic, Ab abiotic).

Liana species Family Occurrence in WEF, SEF, SDF, DEF Liana functional traits
Plant type Climbing mechanism Leaf type Flower type Dispersal mode
Abrus precatorius L. Papilionaceae 2,3,4 D St Mi Cn Ab
Acacia caesia (L) Willd. Mimosaceae 2,3,4 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Acacia canescens Grah. Mimosaceae 2 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Acacia columnaris Craib Mimosaceae 2 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Acacia hohenackeri Craib Mimosaceae 1 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Acacia pennata (L.) Willd Mimosaceae 1,2,3 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Acacia sinuata (Lour.) Merr. Mimosaceae 1,2 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Acacia torta Roxb. Mimosaceae 1,2,3 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) Wilde Passifloraceae 1 Bd Tc Mi Cn Bi
Adenia wightiana (Wall.ex Wight & Arn.) Engler Passifloraceae 4 Bd Tc Mi Cn Bi
Aganosma cymosa (Roxb.) G. Don var. lanceolata Hook. f. Apocynaceae 1,2 Bd St Mi Cn Ab
Aganosma cymosa (Roxb.) G.Don var. cymosa Hook. f. Apocynaceae 1,2,3,4 Bd St Mi Cn Ab
Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang. ssp. hexapetalum (Lam.) Wang. Alangiaceae 1 Bd SA Me Cn Bi
Allophylus concanicus Radlk. Sapindaceae 1 Bd SU Me Ic Bi
Ampelocissus araneosa (Dalz. & Gibs.) Planch. Vitaceae 2 D Tc Me Ic Bi
Ampelocissus arnottiana Planch. Vitaceae 3 D Tc Me Ic Bi
Ampelocissus eriocladus (Wight & Arn.) Planch. Vitaceae 1 D Tc Me Ic Bi
Ampelocissus tomentosa (Heyne ex Roth) Planch. Vitaceae 2,3,4 D Tc Me Ic Bi
Anamirta cocculus (L.) Wight Menispermaceae 1,2 E St Me Ic Bi
Ancistrocladus heyneanus Wall. ex Graham Ancistrocladaceae 1 E HC MA CN AB
Anodendron paniculatum A.DC. Apocynaceae 1,2 E St Mi Cn Ab
Anodendron rhinosporum Thw. Apocynaceae 1 E St Mi Cn Ab
Argyreia cuneata (Willd.) Ker-Gawl. Convolvulaceae 2 E St Mi Cn Bi
Argyreia daltoni Clarke Convolvulaceae 2 E St Me Cn Ab
Argyreia elliptica (Roth) Choisy Convolvulaceae 1 E St Mi Cn Bi
Argyreia kleiniana (Roem. & Schultes) Raizada Convolvulaceae 2 E St Me Cn Bi
Argyreia pilosa Arn. Convolvulaceae 2 E St Mi Cn Bi
Argyreia populifolia Choisy Convolvulaceae 1 E St Me Cn Ab
Argyreia sericea Dalz. Convolvulaceae 3 E St No Cn Bi
Aristolochia indica L. Aristolochiaceae 3,4 E St Mi Cn Ab
Aristolochia tagala Cham. Aristolochiaceae 2 E St No Cn Ab
Artabotrys zeylanicus J.D.Hook. & Thoms. Annonaceae 1 E Hc Me Cn Bi
Asparagus racemosus Willd. Liliaceae 4 D SA Mi Ic Bi
Azima tetracantha Lam. Salvadoraceae 4 E SA Mi Ic Bi
Basella alba L. Basellaceae 3 E St Mi Ic Bi
Bauhinia phoenicea Wight & Arn. Caesalpiniaceae 1 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Bragantia wallichii Br. Aristolochiaceae 1 E St Me Cn Bi
Bridelia scandens (Roxb.) Willd. Euphorbiaceae 1 D SA Mi Ic Bi
Butea parviflora Roxb. Papilionaceae 1,2 D SU Me Ic Ab
Caesalpinia crista L. Caesalpiniaceae 2,3 D SA Me Cn Ab
Caesalpinia cucullata Roxb. Caesalpiniaceae 1,2 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Calamus gamblei Becc.ex Becc. & J.D.Hook. Arecaceae 1 E Gc Ma Ic Bi
Calamus pseudo-tenuis Beccari ex Beccari & Hook. f. Arecaceae 1 E SA Ma Ic Bi
Calamus thwaitesii Becc. & J.D.Hook. Arecaceae 1 E Gc Ma Ic Bi
Calycopteris floribunda Lam. Combretaceae 1,4 D St Mi Cn Ab
Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. Papilionaceae 2,3,4 D St Me Cn Ab
Cansjera rheedii Gmel. Opiliaceae 1,2,3,4 Bd St Mi Ic Bi
Canthium angustifolium Roxb. Rubiaceae 1 D SA Mi Ic Bi
Canthium rheedii DC. Rubiaceae 1 D SA Mi Ic Bi
Capparis brevispina DC. Capparaceae 2,4 E SA Mi Cn Bi
Capparis divaricata Lam. Capparaceae 3,4 E SA Mi Cn Bi
Capparis fusifera Dunn Capparaceae 1 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Capparis moonii Wight Capparaceae 1 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Capparis rotundifolia Rottb. Capparaceae 4 E SA Mi Cn Bi
Capparis sepiaria L. var. retusella Thwaites Capparaceae 2 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Capparis sepiaria L. var. sepiaria Capparaceae 2,3,4 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Capparis shevaroyensis Sun.-Ragh. Capparaceae 1 E SA Mi Cn Bi
Capparis zeylanica L. Capparaceae 2,3,4 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Carissa carandas L. Apocynaceae 2,3 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Carissa gangetica Stapf Apocynaceae 3 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Carissa inermis Vahl Apocynaceae 1 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Carissa paucinervia A. DC. Apocynaceae 2,3 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Carissa salicina Lam. Apocynaceae 3 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Carissa spinarum L. Apocynaceae 1,2,3,4 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Cayratia carnosa (Wall. ex Wight & Arn.) Gagnep Vitaceae 1 Bd Tc Me Ic Bi
Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. Vitaceae 2 Bd Tc Me Ic Bi
Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Juss.ex Gagnep. Vitaceae 1,2,4 Bd Tc Me Ic Bi
Cayratia roxburghii (Wight & Arn.) Gagnep. Vitaceae 2 Bd Tc Me Ic Bi
Cayratia sp. Vitaceae 1 Bd Tc Me Ic Bi
Cayratia tenuifolia (Wight &Arn.) Gagnep. Vitaceae 1 Bd Tc Mi Ic Bi
Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Celastraceae 1,2,3 D SU Mi Ic Bi
Ceropegia thwaitesii J.D.Hook. Asclepiadaceae 1 D St No Cn Ab
Chilocarpus atrovirens (G.Don) Bl. Apocynaceae 1 Bd St Me Cn Bi
Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alston Apocynaceae 1 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Cissus gigantea (Bedd.) Planch. Vitaceae 2 Bd Tc Me Ic Bi
Cissus glauca Roxb. Vitaceae 1 Bd Tc Me Ic Bi
Cissus glyptocarpa (Thw.) Planch. Vitaceae 1 Bd Tc Me Ic Bi
Cissus heyneana (Wall. ex Lawson) Planch. Vitaceae 2,3 D Tc Me Ic Bi
Cissus quadrangularis L. Vitaceae 2,3,4 E Tc Mi Ic Bi
Cissus vitiginea L. Vitaceae 2,3,4 Bd Tc Me Ic Bi
Clematis gouriana Roxb. ex DC. Ranunculaceae 1,2 D SU Me Cn Ab
Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. Verbenaceae 4 Bd SU Mi Cn Bi
Coccinia indica (L.) Voigt Cucurbitaceae 3,4 D Tc No Cn Bi
Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels Menispermaceae 2,3 Bd St Mi Ic Bi
Combretum acuminatum Roxb. Combretaceae 2,3 Bd St No Ic Ab
Combretum albidum G. Don Combretaceae 1,2,3,4 Bd St No Ic Ab
Combretum latifolium Bl. Combretaceae 1 Bd St No Ic Ab
Connarus sclerocarpus (Wight & Arn.) Schellenb. Connaraceae 1 Bd St Ma Ic Bi
Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Coleb. Menispermaceae 1 E St Me Ic Bi
Cosmostigma racemosum (Roxb.) Wight Asclepiadaceae 1,2 E St No Cn Ab
Croton caudatus Geiseler Euphorbiaceae 1 D SU Mi Ic Ab
Cryptolepis buchanani Roemer & Schultes Asclepiadaceae 2 Bd St No Cn Ab
Dalbergia conjesta Graham ex Wight & Arn. Papilionaceae 2 D St Me Ic Ab
Dalbergia rubiginosa Roxb. Papilionaceae 1,2 D St Me Ic Ab
Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. Asclepiadaceae 2,3 D St Mi Ic Ab
Derris benthamii var. benthamii (Thw.) Thw. Papilionaceae 1 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Derris brevipes (Benth.) Baker Papilionaceae 1 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Derris heyneana (Wight & Arn.) Benth. Papilionaceae 1 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Derris ovalifolia (Wight & Arn.) Benth. Papilionaceae 4 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth. Papilionaceae 2,3,4 Bd St Mi Cn Ab
Derris thyrsiflora Benth. Papilionaceae 1 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Derris trifoliata Lour. Papilionaceae 1 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Desmos viridiflorus Saff. Annonaceae 2 Bd SU No Cn Bi
Dioscorea pentaphylla L. Dioscoreaceae 2 D St Me Ic Ab
Dioscorea oppositifolifa L. Dioscoreaceae 2,3,4 D St No Ic Ab
Diploclisia glaucescens (Blume) Diels Menispermaceae 1,2 E St No Ic Bi
Dolichos trilobus L. Papilionaceae 2 D St Mi Cn Ab
Ehretia canarensis (Clarke) Gamble Boraginaceae 1 E SU Mi Ic Bi
Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. Elaeagnaceae 1 E SA Mi Ic Bi
Elaeagnus indica Servattaz Elaeagnaceae 1,2 Bd SU Mi Cn Bi
Ellertonia rheedii Wight Apocynaceae 2 E St Mi Cn Ab
Embelia basaal A.DC. Myrsinaceae 1,2 E SU Mi Cn Bi
Embelia ribes Burm.f. Myrsinaceae 2 Bd SU No Ic Bi
Entada pursaetha DC. Mimosaceae 1,2 E SU No Cn Hc
Erycibe paniculata Roxb. Convolvulaceae 1 E St Mi Cn Bi
Erythropalum populifolium (Arn.) Mast. Erythropalaceae 1 E St Me Ic Bi
Gloriossa superba L. Liliaceae 4 E Tc Me Cn Bi
Gnetum ula Brongn. Gnetaceae 1,2 E St No Ic Bi
Grewia flavescens Juss. Tiliaceae 2,3 Bd SU Mi Cn Bi
Grewia heterotricha Mast. Tiliaceae 2 Bd SU Mi Cn Bi
Grewia opposistifolia Buch. -Ham. Tiliaceae 2,3 Bd SU Mi Cn Bi
Grewia rhamnifolia Heyne ex Roth Tiliaceae 1,2,3,4 Bd SU Mi Cn Bi
Gymnema elegans Wight & Arn. Asclepiadaceae 2 Bd St Mi Ic Ab
Gymnema hirsutum Wight & Arn. Asclepiadaceae 2 Bd St Mi Ic Ab
Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R.Br.ex Schultes Apocynaceae 2,3,4 Bd St Mi Ic Ab
Gymnema tingens (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. Asclepiadaceae 2 E St Mi Ic Ab
Gymnopetalum cochinchinense Kurz Cucurbitaceae 1 D Tc Me Cn Bi
Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. Asclepiadaceae 1 E St Mi Ic Ab
Hippocratea bourdillonii Gamble Hippocrateaceae 1 E St Mi Ic Ab
Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz Malpighiaceae 1,2,3 Bd SU Me Cn Ab
Hugonia ferruginea Wight & Arn. Linaceae 1 Bd Hc Mi Cn Bi
Hugonia mystax L. Linaceae 2,3,4 Bd Hc Mi Cn Bi
Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br. Apocynaceae 2,3,4 Bd St Mi Ic Ab
Icnocarpus publiflorus Hook. f. Apocynaceae 2 Bd St Mi Ic Ab
Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schultes Convolvulaceae 2 Bd St No Cn Ab
Ipomoea staphylina Roem & Schultes Convolvulaceae 1,2,3,4 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Jasminum angustifolium (L.) Willd. Oleaceae 1,2,3,4 E St Mi Cn Bi
Jasminum auriculatum Vahl Oleaceae 2,3 Bd St Mi Cn Bi
Jasminum azoricum L. var. azoricum Oleaceae 1,2 E St No Cn Bi
Jasminum cuspidatum Rottl. Oleaceae 1,2 E St Mi Cn Bi
Jasminum malabaricum Wight Oleaceae 2,3 Bd St No Cn Bi
Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. f.) Andr. Oleaceae 1,2,3 E St Mi Cn Bi
Jasminum ritchiei Clarke Oleaceae 1 E St Mi Cn Bi
Jasminum rottlerianum Wall. ex A.DC. Oleaceae 1 E St Mi Cn Bi
Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. Oleaceae 1 E St Mi Cn Bi
Jasminum scandens Vahl Oleaceae 1 E St Mi Cn Bi
Jasminum sessiliflorum Vahl Oleaceae 2,3,4 E St Mi Cn Bi
Jasminum trichotomum Heyne ex Roth Oleaceae 3 Bd St Mi Cn Bi
Kedrostis courtallensis (Arn.) Jeffrey Cucurbitaceae 2 D Tc Me Cn Bi
Kunstleria keralense Mohanan & Nair Papilionaceae 1 E St Ma Cn Ab
Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae 1,2,3 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Loeseneriella obtusifolia (Roxb.) A.C. Smith Hippocrateaceae 2,3 Bd SU No Ic Ab
Luvunga sarmentosa (Blume) Kurz Rutaceae 1 E SA Me Cn Bi
Maerua oblongifolia (Forsk.) A. Rich. Capparaceae 2,3 Bd SU Mi Cn Bi
Marsdenia brunoniana Wt. & Arn. Asclepiadaceae 1,2 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Marsdenia tenacissima (Roxb.) Moon Asclepiadaceae 2 E St Me Cn Ab
Maytenus heyneana (Roth) Raju & Babu Celastraceae 1,2 D SA MI IC BI
Maytenus royleanus (Wallich ex M. Lawson) M.A. Rau Celastraceae 2 D SA MI IC BI
Mimosa intsia L. Mimosaceae 1,2,3 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Morinda reticulata Gamble Rubiaceae 1 E St Mi Cn Bi
Morinda umbellata L. Rubiaceae 1,2 E St Mi Cn Bi
Moullava spicata (Dalz.) Nicolson Caesalpiniaceae 1 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Mucuna atropurpurea DC. Papilionaceae 1,2 D St Me Cn Ab
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Papilionaceae 1,2 D St Me Cn Ab
Mussaenda belilla Buch.-Ham. Rubiaceae 1 E SU Mi Cn Bi
Mussaenda hirsutissima (Hook.f.) Hutch. ex Gamble Rubiaceae 2 E St Mi Cn Bi
Myxopyrum serratulum A.W. Hill Oleaceae 1 E SU Me Ic Bi
Naravelia zeylanica (L.) DC. Ranunculaceae 1,2 D Tc No Cn Ab
Neonotonia wightii (Wight & Arn.) Lackey Papilionaceae 2,3 D St Me Cn Ab
Olax scandens Roxb. Olacaceae 1,4 E SU Mi Cn Bi
Opilia amentacea Roxb. Opiliaceae 1 Bd SU Mi Ic Bi
Pachygone ovata (Poir.) Miers ex Hook. Menispermaceae 2,3,4 Bd St Mi Ic Bi
Paramignya armata (Thw.) Oliver Rutaceae 1 Bd SA Me Cn Bi
Paramignya beddomei Tanaka Rutaceae 2 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Paramignya monophylla Wight Rutaceae 1 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Parsonsia alboflavescens (Dennst.) Mabberley Apocynaceae 1 E St Mi Cn Ab
Passiflora calcarata Mast. Passifloraceae 1 Bd Tc Mi Cn Bi
Passiflora subpeltata Ortega Passifloraceae 1 Bd Tc Mi Cn Bi
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. Euphorbiaceae 1,3 Bd SU Mi Ic Bi
Piper mullesua Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don Piperaceae 1 E St Mi Ic Bi
Piper nigrum L. Piperaceae 1,2 E Rc Me Ic Bi
Piper sp. Piperaceae 1 E Rc Mi Ic Bi
Pisonia aculeata L. Nyctaginaceae 1,2,3 Bd SA Mi Ic Ab
Plecospermum spinosum Trecul Moraceae 1,2,3,4 Bd SA Mi Cn Bi
Polygonum chinense L. Polygonaceae 1 E SU Mi Ic Bi
Pothos scandens L. Araceae 1 E Rc Mi Cn Bi
Premna corymbosa (Burm.f.) Rottl. & Willd. Verbenaceae 2,3,4 Bd SU Mi Ic Bi
Premna sp. Verbenaceae 2 Bd SU Mi Ic Bi
Premna villosa Clarke Verbenaceae 1,2,3 Bd SU Me Ic Bi
Premna wightiana Schauer Verbenaceae 1,2 Bd SU Me Ic Bi
Pseudaidia speciosa (Bedd.) Tirveng. Rubiaceae 1,2 E St Me Cn Bi
Pterolobium hexapetalum (Roth) Sant. & Wagh. Caesalpiniaceae 1,2,3,4 Bd SA Me Cn Ab
Pyrenacantha volubilis Wight Icacinaceae 4 E St Mi Ic Bi
Reissantia indica (Willd.) Halle Celastraceae 3,4 Bd SU Mi Ic Ab
Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy Convolvulaceae 3,4 Bd St No Cn Bi
Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston Connaraceae 1 E St Ma Cn Bi
Rubus ellipticus Smith Rosaceae 1,2 E SA Me Cn Bi
Rubus micropetalus Gard. Rosaceae 1 Bd SA Me Cn Bi
Rubus niveus Thunb. Rosaceae 2 E SA Me Cn Bi
Sageretia filiformis (Schult.) Don Rhamnaceae 1,2 Bd SA Mi Ic Bi
Salacia beddomei Gamble Celastraceae 1 E St Me Ic Bi
Salacia chinensis L. Celastraceae 1,2,4 Bd SA Mi Ic Bi
Salacia malabarica Gamble Hippocrateaceae 1 E SU Me Ic Bi
Salacia oblonga Wal. ex Wight & Arn. Hippocrateaceae 1 Bd SA No Ic Bi
Salacia sp. Hippocrateaceae 1 E St Me Ic Bi
Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb.) Voigt Asclepiadaceae 2,3,4 E SU - Cn Ab
Sarcostigma kleinii Wight & Arn. Icacinaceae 1 E St Mi Ic Bi
Schefflera venulosa (Wight & Arn.) Harms. Araliaceae 1 E St Ma Ic Bi
Scutia myrtina (Brum.f.) Kurz Rhamnaceae 1,2,3,4 E SA Mi Ic Bi
Secamone emetica (Retz.) R.Br. ex Schultes Asclepiadaceae 1,2,3,4 E St Mi Ic Ab
Smilax perfoliata Lour. Smilacaceae 1 Bd Tc No Cn Bi
Smilax sp. Liliaceae 1 Bd Tc No Cn Bi
Smilax zeylanica L. Liliaceae 1,2 Bd Tc No Cn Bi
Solanum seaforthianum Andr. Solanaceae 2 E St Me Cn Bi
Strychnos dalzellii C.B. Clarke Loganiaceae 1 E St Mi Ic Bi
Strychnos minor Dennst. Loganiaceae 4 E St Mi Ic Bi
Strychnos vanprukii Craib Loganiaceae 1 E St Mi Ic Bi
Symphorema involucratum Roxb. Verbenaceae 4 D SU No Ic Bi
Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.) Alston Vitaceae 1 E Tc Ma Ic Bi
Tetrastigma sulcatum (Lawson) Gamble Vitaceae 1 E Tc Ma Ic Bi
Tiliacora acuminata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thoms. Menispermaceae 4 D St Me Ic Bi
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) J.D.Hook. & Thoms. Menispermaceae 1,2,3,4 D St Me Ic Bi
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. Rutaceae 1,2,3,4 Bd SA Mi Ic Bi
Trichosanthes anaimalaiensis Bedd. Cucurbitaceae 1,2 D Tc Me Cn Bi
Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour. Cucurbitaceae 4 E Tc Me Cn Bi
Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. Asclepiadaceae 1,4 E St No Ic Ab
Tylophora subramanii Henry Asclepiadaceae 2 Bd St No Cn Ab
Unona viridiflora Bedd. Annonaceae 1 E SU Me Cn Bi
Uvaria narum (Dunal) Wall. ex Wight Annonaceae 1 E SU No Cn Bi
Ventilago bombaiensis Dalz. Rhamnaceae 1 Bd St Mi Ic Ab
Ventilago goughii Gamble Rhamnaceae 2 Bd St Mi Ic Ab
Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn. Rhamnaceae 1,2,3,4 Bd St Mi Ic Ab
Wattakaka volubilis (L.f.) T. Cooke Asclepiadaceae 2,3,4 Bd St Me Cn Ab
Zanthoxylum ovalifolium Wight Rutaceae 1,2 E SA Me Cn Ab
Zanthoxylum tetraspermum Wight & Arn. Rutaceae 1,2 E SA Me Cn Ab
Ziziphus horrida Roth. Rhamnaceae 2,3 Bd SA Mi Ic Bi
Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill. Rhamnaceae 1,2,3,4 Bd SA Mi Ic Bi
Ziziphus rugosa Lam. Rhamnaceae 1,2 Bd SA Mi Ic Bi

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Parthasarathy, N., Vivek, P., Muthumperumal, C., Muthuramkumar, S., Ayyappan, N. (2015). Biodiversity of Lianas and Their Functional Traits in Tropical Forests of Peninsular India. In: Parthasarathy, N. (eds) Biodiversity of Lianas. Sustainable Development and Biodiversity, vol 5. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14592-1_8

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