Advertisement

Diversity of Lianas in Eastern Himalayas and North-Eastern India

  • S. K. BarikEmail author
  • D. Adhikari
  • A. Chettri
  • P. P. Singh
Chapter
  • 561 Downloads
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 5)

Abstract

Lianas constitute an important component of plant diversity in a wide range of ecosystems. The liana diversity has been reported to have critical role in maintaining ecosystem structure and function, with a predicted greater role to play under changing climate conditions. However, our understanding on the diversity pattern of lianas in different forest ecosystems along an elevation gradient is limited. Studies on lianas in the Eastern Himalayas and North-eastern region of India are very few. In this paper, we review the status of liana research in the two biodiversity hotspots viz., the Himalayas and Indo-Myanmar, and conducted primary studies in selected high diversity forests of the region to understand the patterns of liana diversity along elevation gradient in the Himalayas. The diversity and distribution of lianas in three major forest types representing the dominant ecological zones of the region viz. tropical, montane-subtropical and temperate were studied using liana census protocol of Gerwing et al. (2006). We recorded 196 liana species in three forest types in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Meghalaya in north-eastern India through plot-based field survey. The diversity and abundance of lianas were greater in sub-tropical and tropical forests than temperate forests. Threat assessment for liana conservation was suggested for their in situ conservation.

Keywords

Forest Type Tropical Forest Adventitious Root Temperate Forest Subtropical Forest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Addo-Fordjour P, Anning AK, Atakora EA, Agyei PS (2008) Diversity and distribution of climbing plants in a semi-deciduous rain forest, KNUST Botanic Garden, Ghana. Int J Bot 4:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen BP, Sharitz RR, Goebel PC (2007) Are lianas increasing in importance in temperate floodplain forests in the southeastern United States? For Ecol Manage 242(1):17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anbarashan M, Parthasarathy N (2013) Diversity and ecology of lianas in tropical dry evergreen forests on the Coromandel Coast of India under various disturbance regimes. Flora-Morphol Distrib Funct Ecol Plant 208(1):22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balakrishnan NP (1981–1983) Flora of Jowai, 2 vols, Botanical Survey of India, HowrahGoogle Scholar
  5. Bongers F, Schnitzer SA, Traore D (2002) The importance of lianas and consequences for forest management in West Africa. Bioterre 1:59–70Google Scholar
  6. Cai ZQ, Schnitzer SA, Bongers F (2009) Liana communities in three tropical forest types in Xishuangbanna, South-West China. J Trop For Sci 21:252–264Google Scholar
  7. Campanello PI, Garibaldi JF, Gatti MG, Goldstein G (2007) Lianas in a subtropical Atlantic forest: host preference and tree growth. For Ecol Manage 242(2):250–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Champion HG, Seth SK (1968) A revised survey of forest types of India. Govt. of India Press, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  9. Chettri A, Barik SK, Pandey HN, Lyngdoh MK (2010) Liana diversity and abundance as related to microenvironment in three forest types located in different elevational ranges of the Eastern Himalayas. Plant Ecol Diver 3:175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chittibabu CV, Parthasarathy N (2001) Liana diversity and host relationships in a tropical evergreen forest in the Indian Eastern Ghats. Ecol Res 16(3):519–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Darlong L, Bhattacharyya D (2012) Some lianas in Tripura, India, demand urgent conservation efforts. Curr Sci 102(9):1246Google Scholar
  12. Darlong L, Bhattacharyya D (2014) Four new additions of angiospermic liana for the state flora of Tripura, India. Pleione 8(1):188–192Google Scholar
  13. Dewalt SJ, Schnitzer SA, Denslow JS (2000) Density and diversity of lianas along a chronosequence in a central Panamanian lowland forest. J Trop Ecol 16(1):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DeWalt SJ, Ickes K, Nilus R, Harms KE, Burslem DF (2006) Liana habitat associations and community structure in a Bornean lowland tropical forest. Plant Ecol 186(2):203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gentry AH (1991) The distribution and evolution of climbing plants. In: Putz FE, Mooney HA (eds) The biology of vines. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 3–49Google Scholar
  16. Gerwing JJ, Schnitzer SA, Burnham RJ, Bongers F, Chave J, Dewalt SJ, Ewango CEN, Foster R, Kenfack D, Mart M et al (2006) A standard protocol for liana censuses. Biotropica 38:56–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gianoli E, Saldana A, Jiménez‐Castillo M, Valladares F (2010) Distribution and abundance of vines along the light gradient in a southern temperate rain forest. J Veg Sci 21(1):66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hajra PK, Verma DM, Giri GS (eds) (1996) Materials for the flora of Arunachal Pradesh, vol I. Botanical Survey of India, CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  19. Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4(1):9Google Scholar
  20. Haridasan K, Rao RR (1985–1987) Forest Flora of Meghalaya, 2 vols, Bishen Singh Mehandrapal Singh, 23-A, Connaught Place, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  21. Hegarty EE (1991) Vine-host interactions. In: Putz FE, Mooney HA (eds) The biology of vines. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 357–375Google Scholar
  22. Homeier J, Englert F, Leuschner C, Weigelt P, Unger M (2010) Factors controlling the abundance of lianas along an altitudinal transect of tropical forests in Ecuador. For Ecol Manage 259(8):1399–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hooker JD (1872–1897) The flora of British India. Reeve and Co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Ichihashi R, Nagashima H, Tateno M (2009) Morphological differentiation of current-year shoots of deciduous and evergreen lianas in temperate forests in Japan. Ecol Res 24(2):393–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. IUCN (2014) IUCN red list of threatened species. Available at www.iucnredlist.org
  26. Jiménez‐Castillo M, Wiser SK, Lusk CH (2007) Elevational parallels of latitudinal variation in the proportion of lianas in woody floras. J Biogeogr 34(1):163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Joseph J (1982) Flora of Nongpoh and its vicinity. Forest Department, Government of MeghalayaGoogle Scholar
  28. Kadavul K, Parthasarathy N (1999) Lianas in two tropical semi-evergreen forest sites on the Kalrayan hills, Eastern Ghats, south India. Trop Biodivers 6:197–208Google Scholar
  29. Kanjilal VN, Kanjilal PC, Das A, De RN, Bor NL (1934–1940) Flora of Assam, 5 vols. Govt. Press, ShillongGoogle Scholar
  30. Leicht-Young SA, Pavlovic NB, Frohnapple KJ, Grundel R (2010) Liana habitat and host preferences in northern temperate forests. For Ecol Manage 260(9):1467–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Londré RA, Schnitzer SA (2006) The distribution of lianas and their change in abundance in temperate forests over the past 45 years. Ecology 87(12):2973–2978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. MacArthur RH (1960) On the relative abundance of species. Am Nat 94:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Magurran AE (2004) Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  34. Malizia A, Grau HR (2006) Liana–host tree associations in a subtropical montane forest of north-western Argentina. J Trop Ecol 22(3):331–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Muthumperumal C, Parthasarathy N (2010) A large-scale inventory of liana diversity in tropical forests of South Eastern Ghats, India. Syst Biodivers 8(2):289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Muthuramkumar S, Parthasarathy N (2000) Alpha diversity of lianas in a tropical evergreen forest in the Anamalais, Western Ghats, India. Divers Distrib 6(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nabe-Nielsen J (2001) Diversity and distribution of lianas in a Neotropical rain forest, Yasuni National Park, Ecuador. J Trop Ecol 17:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Naidu MT, Kumar OA, Venkaiah M (2014) Taxonomic diversity of lianas in tropical forests of Northern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 6(1):59–65Google Scholar
  39. Nayar MP, Sastry ARK (1987–1990) Red Data Book on Indian plants, 3 vols. Botanical Survey of India, CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  40. Parthasarathy N, Muthuramkumar S, Reddy MS (2004) Patterns of liana diversity in tropical evergreen forests of peninsular India. For Ecol Manage 190(1):15–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rice K, Brokaw N, Thompson J (2004) Liana abundance in a Puerto Rican forest. For Ecol Manage 190(1):33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schnitzer SA (2005) A mechanistic explanation for global patterns of liana abundance and distribution. Am Nat 166:262–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schnitzer SA, Bongers F (2002) The ecology of lianas and their role in forests. Trends Ecol Evol 17(5):223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schnitzer SA, Dalling JW, Carson WP (2000) The impact of lianas on tree regeneration in tropical forest canopy gaps: evidence for an alternative pathway of gap‐phase regeneration. J Ecol 88(4):655–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schnitzer SA, Mangan SA, Dalling JW et al (2012) Liana abundance, diversity, and distribution on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. PLoS One 7:e52114PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Senbeta F, Schmitt C, Denich M et al (2005) The diversity and distribution of lianas in Afromontane rain forests of Ethiopia. Divers Distrib 11:443–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tokeshi M (1990) Niche apportionment or random assortment: species abundance patterns revisited. J Anim Ecol 59:1129–1146Google Scholar
  48. Whittaker RH (1972) Evolution and measurement of species diversity. Taxon 21:213–251Google Scholar
  49. Yuan CM, Liu WY, Tang CQ, Li XS (2009) Species composition, diversity, and abundance of lianas in different secondary and primary forests in a subtropical mountainous area, SW China. Ecol Res 24(6):1361–1370CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Barik
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Adhikari
    • 1
  • A. Chettri
    • 2
  • P. P. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Centre for Advanced Studies in BotanyNorth-Eastern Hill UniversityShillongIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanySikkim UniversityGangtokIndia

Personalised recommendations