Evaluation of the Barthel Index Presented on Paper and Developed Digitally

  • Elizabeth Sarah MartinEmail author
  • Chris Nugent
  • Raymond Bond
  • Suzanne Martin
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8456)


Within medical applications there are two main types of information design; paper-based and digital information. As technology is ever changing, healthcare is continually being transitioned from traditional paper documents to digital and online resources. This paper presents the findings of a study involving 26 participants who are familiar with Activity of Daily Living charts, and used three scenarios requiring them to complete both a paper ADL and a digital ADL. An evaluation was undertaken to discover if there were any ‘human errors’ in completing the paper ADL and also looked for similarities/differences through using the digital ADL. We also analyzed the variability of the decisions made by all subjects. Results illustrate that 22 participants agreed that the digital ADL is better, if not the same as a paper based ADL. Further positives include the added benefit of the digital ADL being easy to use and also that the final calculation is done automatically.


Activity of Daily Living ADL Digital 


  1. 1.
    McDowell, S.E., Ferner, H.S., Ferner, R.E.: The pathophysiology of medication errors: how and where they arise. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 67(6), 605–613 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mahoney, F.I., Barthel, D.W.: Functional evaluation: the Barthel index. Md State Med J. 14, 61–65 (1965)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anonymous, Title of measure: Barthel index of activities of daily living.
  4. 4.
    Roley, S.E., DeLany, J.V., Barrows, C.J., et al.: Occupational therapy practice framework: domain & practices, 2nd edition. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 62, 625–683 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Füzéki, E., Banzer, W.: Activities of daily living and health. Public Health Forum 21(2), 4.e1–4.e4 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.phf.2013.03.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Naeem, U., Bigham, J., Wang, J.: Recognising activities of daily life using hierarchical plans. In: Kortuem, G., Finney, J., Lea, R., Sundramoorthy, V. (eds.) EuroSSC 2007. LNCS, vol. 4793, pp. 175–189. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kolakowsky-Hayner, S.: The Patient Competency Rating Scale. The Center for Outcome Measurement in Brain Injury (2010).
  8. 8.
    Mary Shelkey, M.: Wallace, M.: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) The Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, New York University, College of Nursing (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bochicchio, M.A., Longo, A., Vaira, L.: Extending Web applications with 3D features. In: 2011 13th IEEE International Symposium on Web Systems Evolution (WSE), pp. 93–96 (2011). doi: 10.1109/WSE.2011.6081825
  10. 10.
    Van Oosterom, A., Oostendorp, T.: ECGSIM: an interactive tool for studying the genesis of QRST waveforms. Br. Med. J. 90, 165 (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bond, R.R., Finlay, D.D., Nugent, C.D., Moore, G., Guldenring, D.: A simulation tool for visualizing and studying the effects of electrode misplacement on the 12-lead electrocardiogram. J. Electrocardiol. 44(4), 439–444 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martin, E.S., Finlay, D.D., Nugent, C.D., Bond, R.R., Breen, C.J.: An interactive tool for the evaluation of ECG visualisation formats. In: Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 22–25 September 2013, pp. 779–782 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth Sarah Martin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chris Nugent
    • 1
  • Raymond Bond
    • 1
  • Suzanne Martin
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Computing and MathematicsUniversity of UlsterJordanstownNorthern Ireland, UK
  2. 2.School of Health SciencesUniversity of UlsterJordanstownNorthern Ireland, UK

Personalised recommendations