Portable Optically Tracked Ultrasound System for Scoliosis Measurement

  • Guillermo Carbajal
  • Álvaro Gómez
  • Gabor FichtingerEmail author
  • Tamas Ungi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics book series (LNCVB, volume 20)


Monitoring spinal curvature in adolescent kyphoscoliosis requires regular radiographic examinations; however, the applied ionizing radiation increases the risk of cancer. Ultrasound imaging is favorable over X-ray because it does not emit ionizing radiation. It has been shown in the past that tracked ultrasound can be used to localize vertebral transverse processes as landmarks along the spine to measure curvature angles. Tests have been performed with spine phantoms, but scanning protocol, tracking system, data acquisition and processing time has not been considered in human subjects yet. In this paper, a portable optically tracked ultrasound system for scoliosis measurement is presented. It provides a simple way to acquire data in the clinical environment with the aim of comparing results to current X-ray-based measurement. The workflow of the procedure was tested on volunteers. The customized open-source software is shared with the community as part of our effort to make a clinically practical system.


Adolescent idiopathic kyphoscoliosis Scoliosis Kyphosis Tracked sonography Tracked ultrasound snapshot 



This work was supported in part by the Canada-Latin America Research Exchange Grant (LACREG) program. Comision Sectorial de Investigacion Cientıfica (CSIC, Universidad de la Republica, Uruguay) supported the internship of G. Carbajal at Perklab.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guillermo Carbajal
    • 1
  • Álvaro Gómez
    • 1
  • Gabor Fichtinger
    • 2
    Email author
  • Tamas Ungi
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Ingeniería Eléctrica Facultad de IngenieríaUniversidad de la RepúblicaMontevideoUruguay
  2. 2.Laboratory for Percutaneous Surgery, School of ComputingQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

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