The Entrepreneurial Origins of Family Business

  • Laura Hougaz
Part of the Management for Professionals book series (MANAGPROF)


This chapter begins by presenting various interpretations of what entrepreneurship is, and what/who an entrepreneur is. It then focuses on the contribution of the first generation to multigenerational family business. How the first generation came to be in the position of establishing a family business, and how they initiated an entrepreneurial action out of nothing is fundamental for the following generations and the family firm. This generation is considered to be the founding entrepreneurial generation, the genetic matrix that sets the culture for subsequent generations.

The first generation in this book are considered to be the entrepreneurs in two different ways, first because the process of change, activated by their decision to migrate, represents a form of entrepreneurial effort to create something new in personal terms, and second because they created something new in economic terms. The important dimension of personal entrepreneurship in this book is perceived as an outcome of the process of migration, of transitioning from the old to the new, breaking out of the old life, into a new life, with new emerging opportunities and conditions, relying on the individuals’ personal resources.

This chapter identifies the personal resources that migrants make use of in a new condition, that may lead to innovative activity and the creation of a new enterprise, such as a family business.


Entrepreneurial Action Family Firm Family Business Australian Economy Social Entrepreneurship 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aldrich, H. E., Cater, J., Jones, T., McEvoy, D., & Velleman, P. (1985). Ethnic concentration and the protected market hypothesis. Social Forces, 63(4), 996–1009.Google Scholar
  2. Aldrich, H. E., & Waldinger, R. (1990). Ethnicity and entrepreneurship. Annual Review of Sociology, 16(1), 111–135.Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez, S., & Busenitz, L. (2001). The entrepreneurship of resource based theory. Journal of Management, 27, 755–775.Google Scholar
  4. Ashkanasy, N. C., Härtel, C., & Daus, C. (2002). Diversity and emotion the new frontiers in organisation behaviour research. Journal of Management, 28, 307–338.Google Scholar
  5. Austin, J., Howard, S., & Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: Same, different, or both?. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 30(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  6. Baldassar, L. (1994). Migration as transnational interaction – Italy re-visited. Conference Proceedings: Italian Towards 2000. The Role of Italian Studies in Australian Universities. Prospects for the Future. Melbourne: Victoria University of Technology.Google Scholar
  7. Baumol, W. J. (1993). Formal entrepreneurship theory in economics: Existence and bounds. Journal of Business Venturing, 3, 197–210.Google Scholar
  8. Bertone, S. (2008). From factory fodder to multicultural mediators: A new typology of immigrant work experiences in Australia. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag.Google Scholar
  9. Betta, M., Jones, R., & Latham, J. (2010). Entrepreneurship and the innovative self: A Schumpeterian reflection. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 16(3), 229–244.Google Scholar
  10. Boissevain, J., Blaschke, J., Grotenbreg, H., Joseph, I., Light, I., Sway, M., et al. (1990). Ethnic entrepreneurs and ethnic strategies. In R. Waldinger, H. E. Aldrich, & R. Ward (Eds.), Immigrant entrepreneurs: Immigrant and ethnic business in western industrial societies. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Boissevain, J., & Grotenbreg, H. (1987). Survival in spite of the law: Surinamese entrepreneurs in Amsterdam. Revue Européenne des Migrations Internationals, Espaces Urbains, 3(1–2), 199–222.Google Scholar
  12. Bonacich, E. (1972). A theory of ethnic antagonism: The split labor market. American Sociological Review, 37, 547–559.Google Scholar
  13. Bonacich, E. (1973). A theory of middleman minorities. American Sociological Review, 38(5), 583–594.Google Scholar
  14. Bonacich, E., Light, I. H., & Wong, C. C. (1977). Koreans in small business. Society, 14(6), 54–59.Google Scholar
  15. Bonacich, E., & Modell, J. (1980). The economic basis of ethnic solidarity: Small business in the Japanese American community. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  16. Busenitz, L. W. (1992). Cognitive biases in strategic decision-making: Heuristics as a differentiator between managers in large organisations and entrepreneurs. PhD thesis, A & M University, TX.Google Scholar
  17. Bygrave, W. D., & Hofer, C. W. (1991). Theorizing about entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 16(2), 13–22.Google Scholar
  18. Carland, J. W., Hoy, F., Boulton, W. R., & Carland, J. A. C. (1984). Differentiating entrepreneurs from small business owners: A conceptualization. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 354–359.Google Scholar
  19. Carter, S., & Jones-Evans, D. (2000). Enterprise and small business: Principles, practice and policy. Harlow: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  20. Castles, S., & Collins, J. (1989). Restructuring, migrant labour markets and small business (Occasional Paper No 16). Wollongong: Centre for Multicultural Studies, University of Wollongong.Google Scholar
  21. Castles, S., Collins, J., Gibson, K., Tait, D., & Alcorso, C. (1991). The global milkbar and the local sweatshop: Ethnic small business and the economic restructuring of Sydney. Wollongong: Centre for Multicultural Studies for the Office of Multicultural Affairs.Google Scholar
  22. Chaganti, R., & Greene, P. G. (2002). Who are ethnic entrepreneurs? A study of entrepreneurs’ ethnic involvement and business characteristic. Journal of Small Business Management, 40(2), 126–143.Google Scholar
  23. Collins, J. (1988). Migrant hands in a distant land: Australia’s post-war immigration. Sydney: Pluto.Google Scholar
  24. Collins, J. (1992). Cappuccino capitalism: Italian immigrants and Australian business. In F. G. Agnelli (Ed.), Australia’s Italians: Culture and community in a changing society (pp. 73–84). St Leonards: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  25. Collins, J., Gibson, K., Alcorso, C., Castles, S., & Tait, D. (1995). A shop full of dreams: Ethnic small business in Australia. Leichhardt: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  26. Constance, L., David, I., Jim, K., & Tracy, N. (1991). Asian entrepreneurs in Australia. Report to the Office of Multicultural Affairs Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  27. Curran, J., & Blackburn, R. (1993). Ethnic enterprise and the high street bank: A survey of ethnic businesses in two localities. The Small Business Research Centre Report. London: Kingston University Business School.Google Scholar
  28. Farley, R., & Alba, R. (2002). The new second generation in the United States. International Migration Review, 36(3), 669–701.Google Scholar
  29. Filion, L. J. (1998). From entrepreneurship to entreprenology: The emergence of a new discipline. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 6(1), 1–23.Google Scholar
  30. Fletcher, D. (2003). Framing organisational emergence: Discourse, identity and relationship. In C. Steyaert & D. Hjorth (Eds.), New movements in entrepreneurship (pp. 125–142). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  31. Gans, H. J. (1992). Second-generation decline: Scenarios from the economic and ethnic futures of the post-1965 American immigrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 15(2), 173–192.Google Scholar
  32. Gans, H. J. (2007). Acculturation, assimilation and mobility. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(1), 152–164.Google Scholar
  33. Gartner, W. B. (1985). A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation. Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 696–706.Google Scholar
  34. Gartner, W. B. (1988). “Who is an entrepreneur?” is the wrong question. American Journal of Small Business, 12(4), 11–32.Google Scholar
  35. Gartner, W. B. (1989). Some suggestions for research on entrepreneurial traits and characteristics. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 14(1), 27–38.Google Scholar
  36. Gartner, W. B. (2001). Is there an elephant in entrepreneurship? Blind assumptions in theory development. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 25(4), 27–39.Google Scholar
  37. Goss, D. (2005). Schumpeter’s legacy? Interaction and emotions in the sociology of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29(2), 205–218.Google Scholar
  38. Goss, D. (2007). Enterprise ritual: A theory of entrepreneurial emotion and exchange. British Journal of Management, 18, 2–18.Google Scholar
  39. Goss, D., Jones, R., Betta, M., & Latham, J. (2011). Power as practice: A micro-sociological analysis of the dynamics of emancipatory entrepreneurship. Organisation Studies, 32(2), 211–229.Google Scholar
  40. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.Google Scholar
  41. Granovetter, M. S. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 481–510.Google Scholar
  42. Hammarstedt, M. (2004). Self-employment among immigrants in Sweden: An analysis of intragroup differences. Small Business Economics, 23(2), 115–126.Google Scholar
  43. Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., Camp, S. M., & Sexton, D. L. (2001). Guest editors’ introduction to the special issue strategic entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial strategies for wealth creation. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6–7), 479–491.Google Scholar
  44. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  45. Hougaz, L. (2012). The value of values: A study of three generational Italian-Australian family businesses in Victoria. PhD thesis, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.Google Scholar
  46. Hougaz, L., & Betta, M. (2008). The business of the family: Italian-Australian entrepreneurs in Victoria and their modern dynasties. Proceedings: 5th AGSE International Entrepreneurship Research Exchange. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Swinburne University of Technology.Google Scholar
  47. Hougaz, L., & Betta, M. (2009). Behind the scenes: The hidden power of women in family businesses. Proceedings: 23rd Annual Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM) Conference. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.Google Scholar
  48. Hougaz, L., & Betta, M. (2010). Women in family businesses: Perceptions and understanding of entrepreneurship. Proceedings: 7th International AGSE International Entrepreneurship Research Exchange. University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia.Google Scholar
  49. Hougaz, L., & Betta, M. (2011, September). When origins matter: A historical perspective of family business in Australia. Family Business Association (FBA) Research Symposium, Perth.Google Scholar
  50. Hougaz, L., & Betta, M. (2014). Entrepreneurship through transnational migration: The resources of early migrants. Labour and Management in Development Journal, 15, 1–23.Google Scholar
  51. Ibrahim, G., & Galt, V. (2003). Ethnic business development: Toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Journal of Economic Issues, 37(4), 1107–1119.Google Scholar
  52. Ireland, M. A., & Webb, J. W. (2007). Strategic entrepreneurship: Creating competitive advantage through streams of innovation. Business Horizons, 50(1), 49–59.Google Scholar
  53. Jimenez, T. R. (2004). Negotiating ethnic boundaries. Ethnicities, 4(1), 75–97.Google Scholar
  54. Jones, R., Latham, J., & Betta, M. (2008). The narrative construction of the social entrepreneurial identity. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 14(5), 330–345.Google Scholar
  55. Jones, T., Ram, M., Edwards, P., Kiselinchev, P., & Muchenje, L. (2012). New migrant enterprise: Novelty or historical continuity? Urban Studies, 49(14), 3159–3176.Google Scholar
  56. Kirzner, I. M. (1997). Entrepreneurial discovery and the competitive market process: An Austrian approach. Journal of Economic Literature, 35(1), 60–85.Google Scholar
  57. Kirzner, I. M. (1999). Creativity and/or alertness: A reconsideration of the Schumpeterian entrepreneur. Review of Austrian Economics, 11(1–2), 5–17.Google Scholar
  58. Kloosterman, R., & Rath, J. (Eds.). (2003). Immigrant entrepreneurs: Venturing abroad in the age of globalization. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  59. Krueger, N. F. J. (2007). What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 31, 123–138.Google Scholar
  60. Krueger, N. F. J., & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 18(3), 91–104.Google Scholar
  61. Lampugnani, R., & Holton, R. (1989). Ethnic business in South Australia: Sociological profile of the Italian business community. Adelaide: Centre for Multicultural Studies, Flinders University of South Australia.Google Scholar
  62. Leibenstein, H. (1978). General X-efficiency and economic development. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Lever-Tracy, C., Ip, D., Kitay, J., Phillips, I., & Tracy, N. (1991). Asian entrepreneurs in Australia. Canberra: Office of Multicultural Affairs, Department of the Prime Minister & Cabinet.Google Scholar
  64. Light, I. H. (1972). Ethnic enterprise in America: Business and welfare among Chinese, Japanese and Blacks. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  65. Light, I. H. (1980). Asian enterprises in America: Chinese, Koreans and Japanese in small business. In L. L. Cummings (Ed.), Self-help in urban America. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat.Google Scholar
  66. Light, I. H. (1984). Immigrant and ethnic enterprise in North America. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 7(1), 31–45.Google Scholar
  67. Light, I. H., & Bhachu, P. (Eds.). (1993). Immigration and entrepreneurship: Culture, capital and ethnic networks. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  68. Light, I. H., & Gold, S. (2000). Ethnic economies. New York, NY: Academic.Google Scholar
  69. Light, I. H., & Roach, E. (1996). Self-employment: Mobility ladder or economic lifeboat? In R. Waldinger & M. Bozorgmehr (Eds.), Ethnic Los Angeles. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  70. Low, M. B., & MacMillan, I. C. (1988). Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challenges. Journal of Management, 14(2), 139–161.Google Scholar
  71. Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135–172.Google Scholar
  72. Markovits, C. (2000). The global world of Indian merchants. 1750–1947: Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  73. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  74. McClelland, D. C. (1986). Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Keys to the future of American business. Proceedings of the Third Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Symposium. Framingham, MA: US Small Business Administration and the National Center for Research in Vocational Education.Google Scholar
  75. Menzies, T. V., Filion, L. J., Brenner, G. A., & Elgie, S. (2003). A study of entrepreneurs’ ethnic involvement utilizing personal and business characteristics (Working paper 2003-18).Proceedings: 20th Annual CCSBE Conference. Victoria, BC.Google Scholar
  76. Mill, J. S. (1948). Principles of political economy with some of their applications to social philosophy. London: John W. Parker.Google Scholar
  77. Miller, P. (1999). Immigration policy and immigrant quality: The Australian points system. The American Economic Review, 89(2), 192–197.Google Scholar
  78. Min, P. G. (2004). The second generation: Ethnic identity among Asian Americans. Walnut Creek, CA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  79. Mitchell, R. K. (2005). Tuning up the global value creation engine: The road to excellence in international entrepreneurship education. In J. A. Katz & D. Shepherd (Eds.), Cognitive approaches to entrepreneurship research in advances, entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth (pp. 185–248). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  80. Mitchell, R. K., Busenitz, L., Lant, T., McDougall, P. P., Morse, E. A., & Smith, B. J. (2002). Toward a theory of entrepreneurial cognition: Rethinking the people side of entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 27(2), 93–104.Google Scholar
  81. Mitchell, R. K., Smith, J. B., Morse, E. A., Seawright, K. W., Peredo, A. M., & McKenzie, B. (2002). Are entrepreneurial cognitions universal? Assessing entrepreneurial cognitions across cultures. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 26(4), 9–32.Google Scholar
  82. Oommen, T. K. (2001). Situating ethnicity conceptually. Ethnicities, 1(11), 13–14.Google Scholar
  83. Panucci, F., Kelly, B., & Castles, S. (1992). Italians help build Australia. In S. Castles, C. Alcorso, E. Vasta, & G. Rando (Eds.), Australia’s Italians. Culture and community in a changing society (pp. 56–72). St. Leonards: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  84. Peters, N. (1999). Trading places: Greek, Italian, Dutch and Vietnamese enterprise in Western Australia. PhD thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA.Google Scholar
  85. Platt, L. (2005). Migration and social mobility: The life chances of Britain’s minority ethnic communities. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  86. Portes, A. (1995). Economic sociology and the sociology of immigration: A conceptual overview. In A. Portes (Ed.), The economic sociology of immigration: Essays on networks, ethnicity, and entrepreneurship. New York: Sage.Google Scholar
  87. Portes, A., & Bach, R. L. (1985). Latin journey. Cuban and Mexican immigrants in the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  88. Portes, A., & Manning, R. (1986). The immigrant enclave: Theory and empirical examples. In S. Olzak & J. Nagel (Eds.), Competitive ethnic relations (pp. 47–68). Orlando, FL: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  89. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1992). Gaining the upper hand: Economic mobility among immigrant and domestic minorities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 15(4), 491–522.Google Scholar
  90. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The new second generation: Segmented assimilation and its variants. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530, 74–96.Google Scholar
  91. Price, C. A. (1963). Southern Europeans in Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Ram, M., & Hillin, G. (1994). Achieving ‘Break out’: Developing mainstream ethnic minority businesses. Small Business and Enterprise Development, 1(2), 15–21.Google Scholar
  93. Rath, J. (Ed.). (2000). Immigrant businesses: The economic, political and social environment. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  94. Sarasvathy, S. D. (2001). Entrepreneurship as economics with imagination. Business Ethics Quarterly, 3, 95–112.Google Scholar
  95. Scheff, T. (1990). Microsociology: Discourse, emotion and social structure. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  96. Schloss, H. H. (1968). The concept of entrepreneurship in economic development. Journal of Economic Issues, 2(2), 228–232.Google Scholar
  97. Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development (published in German [1912]. First edition in English). Cambridge, MA/Cambridge, MA/London: Harvard University Press/Harvard Economic Studies/Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Schumpeter, J. A. (1935). The analysis of economic change. Review of Economics and Statistics, 17(4), 2–10. (Reprinted from Essays on entrepreneurs, innovations, business cycles, and the evolution of capitalism, 7th ed., pp. 134–149, by R. V. Clemence, Ed., 2004, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction).Google Scholar
  99. Schumpeter, J. A. (1939). Business cycles: A theoretical, historical and statistical analysis of the capitalist process (Vol. 1 and 2). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  100. Schumpeter, J. A. (1949). Economic theory and entrepreneurial history. (Reprinted from Essays on entrepreneurs, innovations, business cycles, and the evolution of capitalism, 7th ed., pp. 253–271, by R. V. Clemence, Ed., 2004, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction).Google Scholar
  101. Sexton, D. L., & Smilor, R. W. (1986). The art and science of entrepreneurship. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  102. Shane, S. A., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  103. Sharma, P., & Chrisman, J. J. (1999). Toward a reconciliation of the definitional issues in the field of corporate entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 23(2), 11–28.Google Scholar
  104. Strahan, K. W., & Williams, A. J. (1988). Immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia: Report to the Office of Multicultural Affairs. Melbourne: Office of Multicultural Affairs, Productive Culture Australia.Google Scholar
  105. Timmons, J. A. (1978). Characteristics and role demands of entrepreneurship. American Journal of Small Business, 3(1), 5–17.Google Scholar
  106. Timmons, J. A. (1994). New venture creation, entrepreneurship for the 21st century. Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin.Google Scholar
  107. Tsui-Auch, L. S. (2005). Unpacking regional ethnicity and the strength of ties in shaping ethnic entrepreneurship. Organisation Studies, 26(8), 1189–1216.Google Scholar
  108. Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research: An editor’s perspective. In J. Katz & R. H. S. Brockhaus (Eds.), Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth (pp. 119–138). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  109. Waldinger, R. (1986). Through the eye of a needle: Immigrants and enterprise in New York’s garment trade. New York, NY: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Waldinger, R. (1996). Still the promised city? African-Americans and new immigrants in post-industrial New York. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Waldinger, R., Aldrich, H., & Ward, R. (1990a). Ethnic entrepreneurs: Immigrant business in industrial societies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  112. Waldinger, R., Aldrich, H., & Ward, R. (1990b). Ethnicity and entrepreneurship (Research Paper). Wilmington, NC: Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina.Google Scholar
  113. Waldinger, R., & Der-Martirosian, C. (2001). The immigrant niche. In R. Waldinger (Ed.), Strangers at the gates: New immigrants in urban America (pp. 228–271). Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  114. Ward, A. (2005). An integrated model of entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship. Conference Paper, High Tech Small Firms Conference, Manchester, UK.Google Scholar
  115. Weber, M. (1930). The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (T. Parsons, Trans.). London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  116. Werbner, P. (1990). Renewing an industrial past: British Pakistani entrepreneurship in Manchester. Migration, 8, 17–41.Google Scholar
  117. Wilson, K. L., & Portes, A. (1980). Immigrant enclaves: An analysis of the labour market experiences of Cubans in Miami. American Journal of Sociology, 86(2), 295–319.Google Scholar
  118. Woolcock, M. (1998). Social capital and economic development: Toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society, 27(2), 151–208.Google Scholar
  119. Yinger, M. J. (1985). Ethnicity. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 151–180.Google Scholar
  120. Zhou, M. (1992). Chinatown: The socio-economic potential of an urban enclave. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  121. Zhou, M. (1995). Low-wage employment and social mobility: The experience of immigrant Chinese women in New York city. National Journal of Sociology, 9(1), 1–30.Google Scholar
  122. Zimmer, C., & Aldrich, H. (1987). Resource mobilization through ethnic networks: Kinship and friendship ties of shopkeepers in England. Sociological Perspectives, 30(4), 422–445.Google Scholar
  123. Zubrzycki, J. (1977). Towards a multicultural society. In M. Bowen (Ed.), The ethnic impact. Proceedings from the First National Conference on Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Groups in Australia. Armidale: University of New England.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Hougaz
    • 1
  1. 1.Study ConnectionsMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations