Graphene Filled Polymers in Photovoltaic

  • Dipankar Barpuzary
  • Mohammad QureshiEmail author
Part of the Springer Series on Polymer and Composite Materials book series (SSPCM)


Graphene—a two-dimensional lattice oriented monolayer of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms—has taken up considerable attention leading to a growing scientific interest due to its exceptionally high electrical conductivity (orders of magnitude higher than copper), optical transparency (>90 %), chemical robustness (more than 500 °C) and mechanical stiffness (more than 1,000 GPa) as well as high specific surface area . Design and development of graphene incorporated polymer photovoltaics is one of the promising routes to harness the extraordinary properties of graphene for the generation of efficient solar-to-power conversion devices. Graphene as well as its chemically functionalized forms, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced-GO, are the smart materials for photovoltaic cells performing specific functions depending upon their intriguing properties. Herein we review the multifunctional and practical applicability of graphene and its composite materials as the electron acceptor, counter electrode and hole transport components of polymer solar cells . We conclude the chapter with the present scenario and challenges related to the stability and commercialization of graphene–polymer based photovoltaic devices .


Solar cell Counter electrode Photovoltaics Electron-hole transport 


  1. 1.
    Zhu Y, Murali S, Cai W, Xuesong Li, Suk J W, Potts J R, Ruoff R S (2010) Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications. Adv Mater 22:3906–3924Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Geim A K, Novoselov K S (2007) The rise of graphene. Nat Mater 6:183–191Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Compton O C, Nguyen S B T (2010) Graphene oxide, highly reduced graphene oxide, and graphene: versatile building blocks for carbon-based materials. Small 6:711–723Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stankovich S, Dikin D A, Dommett G H B (2006) Graphene-based composite materials. Nat 442:282–286Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Soldano C, Mahmood A, Dujardin E (2010) Production, properties and potential of graphene. Carbon 48:2127–2150Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Katsnelson M I (2007) Graphene: carbon in two dimensions. Mater Today 10:20–27Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Geim A K (2009) Graphene: status and prospects. Science 324:1530–1534Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Novoselov K S, Jiang Z, Zhang Y, Morozov S V, Stormer H L, Zeitler U, Maan J C, Boebinger G S, Kim P, Geim A K (2007) Room-temperature quantum hall effect in graphene. Science 315:1379–1379Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stoller M D, Park S, Zhu Y, An J, Ruoff R S (2008) Graphene-based ultracapacitors. Nano Lett 8:3498–3502Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Loh K P, Bao, Q L, Eda G, Chhowalla M (2010) Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications. Nat Chem 2:1015–1024Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eda G, Fanchini G, Chhowalla M (2008) Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material. Nat Nanotechnol 3:270–274Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yu D S, Dai L (2010) Self-assembled graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid films for supercapacitors. J Phys Chem Lett 1:467–470Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang X, Zhi L J, Mullen K (2008) Graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Lett 8:323–327Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eda G, Chhowalla M (2009) Graphene-based composite thin films for electronics. Nano Lett 9:814–818Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yu D S, Dai L (2010) Voltage-induced incandescent light emission from large-area graphene films. Appl Phys Lett 96:143107(1–3)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yu D S, Yang Y, Durstock M, Baek J-B, Dai L (2010) Soluble P3HT-grafted graphene for efficient bilayer-heterojunction photovoltaic devices. ACS Nano 4:5633–5640Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gilje S, Song H, Wang M, Wang K L, Kaner R B (2007) A chemical route to graphene for device applications. Nano Lett 7:3394–3398Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu Y, Yu D, Zeng C, Miao Z, Dai L (2010) Biocompatible graphene oxide-based glucose biosensors. Langmuir 29:6158–6160Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Qu L, Liu Y, Baek J, Dai L (2010) Nitrogen-doped graphene as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction in fuel cells. ACS Nano 4:1321–1326Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dreyer D R, Park S, Bielawski C W, Ruoff R S (2009) The chemistry of graphene oxide. Chem Soc Rev 39:228–240Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lightcap V, Kamat P V (2012) Fortification of CdSe quantum dots with graphene oxide. excited state interactions and light energy conversion. J Am Chem Soc 134:7109–7116Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    O’Regan B, Grätzel M (1991) A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films. Nat 353:737–740Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Imahori H, Umeyama T, Ito S (2009) Large π-aromatic molecules as potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Acc Chem Res 42:1809–1818Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ye L, Zhang S, Huo L, Zhang M, HouJ (2014) Molecular design toward highly efficient photovoltaic polymers based on two-dimensional conjugated benzodithiophene. Acc Chem Res 47:1595–1603Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Park S H, Roy A, Beaupre S, Cho S, Coates N, Moon J S, Moses D, Leclerc M, Lee K, Heeger A J (2009) Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%. Nat Photonics 3:297–302Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li G, Shrotriya V, Huang J, Yao Y, Moriarty T, Emery K, Yang Y (2005) High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends. Nat Mater 4:864–868Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ma W, Yang C, Gong X, Lee K, Heeger A J (2005) Thermally stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology. Adv Funct Mater 15:1617–1622Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Peet J, Kim J Y, Coates N E, Ma W L, Moses D, Heeger A J, Bazan G C (2007) Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols. Nat Mater 6:497–500Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen H-Y, Hou J, Zhang S (2009) Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency. Nat Photonics 3:649–653Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li G, Zhu R, Yang Y (2012) Polymer solar cells. Nat Photonics 6:153–161Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    He Z, Zhong C, Huang X, Wong W-Y, Wu H, Chen L, Su S, Cao Y (2011) Simultaneous enhancement of open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor in polymer solar cells. Adv Mater 23:4636–4643Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Small C E, Chen S, Subbiah J, Amb C M, Tsang S-W, Lai T-H, Reynolds J R, So F (2012) High-efficiency inverted dithienogermolethienopyrrolodione-based polymer solar cells. Nat Photonics 6:115–120Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen H-Y, Hou J, Zhang S, Liang Y, Yang G, Yang Y, Yu L, Wu Y, Li G (2009) Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency. Nat Photonics 3:649–653Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liang Y, Xu Z, Xia J, Tsai S-T, Wu Y, Li G, Ray C, Yu L (2010) For the bright future–bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%. Adv Mater 22:E135–E138.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    You J, Dou L, Yoshimura K, Kato T, Ohya K, Moriarty T, Emery K, Chen C-C, Gao J, Li G, Yang Y (2013) A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency. Nat Commun 4:1446(1–10)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Clarke T M, Durrant J R, (2010) Charge photogeneration in organic solar cells. Chem Rev 110:6736–6767Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pan Z, Gu H, Wu M-T, Li Y, Chen Y (2012) Graphene-based functional materials for organic solar cells. Opt Mater Express 2:814–824Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ren L, Qiu J, Wang S (2013) Photovoltaic properties of graphene nanodisk-integrated polymer composites. Compos: Part B 55:548–557Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Acik M, Chabal Y J (2011) Nature of graphene edges: a review. Jpn J Appl Phys 50:070101(1–16)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Li Y, Hu Y, Zhao Y, Shi G, Deng L, Hou Y, Qu L (2011) An electrochemical avenue to green-luminescent graphene quantum dots as potential electron-acceptors for photovoltaics. Adv Mater 23:776–780Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yan X, Cui X, Li B, Li L S (2010) Large, solution-processible graphene quantum dots as light absorbers for photovoltaics. Nano Lett 10:1869–1873Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gupta V, Chaudhary N, Srivastava R, Sharma G D, Bhardwaj R, Chand S (2011) Luminscent graphene quantum dots for organic photovoltaic devices. J Am Chem Soc 133:9960–9963Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yong V, Tour J M (2010) Theoretical efficiency of nanostructured graphene-based photovoltaics. Small 6:313–318Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hill I G, Kahn A, Soos Z G, Pascal R A J (2000) Charge-separation energy in films of π-conjugated organic molecules. Chem Phys Lett 327:181–188Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Alvarado S F, Seidler P F, Lidzey D G, Bradley D D C (1998) Direct determination of the exciton binding energy of conjugated polymers using a scanning tunneling microscope. Phys Rev Lett 81:1082–1085Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kersting R, Lemmer U, Deussen M, Bakker H J, Mahrt R F, Kurz H, Arkhipov V I, Bässler H, Göbel E O (1994) Ultrafast field-induced dissociation of excitons in conjugated polymers. Phys Rev Lett 73:1440–1443Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Xue J, Rand B P, Uchida S, Forrest S R (2005) A hybrid planar–mixed molecular heterojunction photovoltaic cell. Adv Mater 17:66–71Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Scully S R, McGehee M D (2006) Effects of optical interference and energy transfer on exciton diffusion length measurements in organic semiconductors. J Appl Phys 100:034907(1–5)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Markov D E, Hummelen J C, Blom P W M, Sieval A B (2005) Dynamics of exciton diffusion in poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/fullerene heterostructures. Phys Rev B 72:045216(1–5)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Peumans P, Yakimov A, Forrestb S R (2003) Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells. J Appl Phys 93:3693–3723Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hoppe H, Sariciftci N S (2004) Organic solar cells: an overview. J Mater Res 19:1924–1945Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dennler G, Scharber M C, Brabec C J (2009) Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Adv Mater 21:1323–1338Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kniepert J, Lange I, Kaap N J v d, Koster L J A, Dieter Neher (2014) A conclusive view on charge generation, recombination, and extraction in as-prepared and annealed P3HT:PCBM blends: combined experimental and simulation work. Adv Energy Mater 4:1301401(1–10)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wang T, Pearson A J, Lidzey D G, Jones R A L (2013) Evolution of structure, optoelectronic properties, and device performance of polythiophene:fullerene solar cells during thermal annealing. Adv Funct Mater 21:1383–1390Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Oklobia O, Shafai T S (2013) A study of donor/acceptor interfaces in a blend of P3HT/PCBM solar cell: effects of annealing and PCBM loading on optical and electrical properties. Solid-State Electron 87:64–68Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kasry A, Ashry M E, Nistor R A, Bola A A, Tulevskia G S, Martynaa G J, Newns D M (2012) High performance metal microstructure for carbon-based transparent conducting electrodes. Thin Solid Films 520:4827–4830Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Søndergaard R, Hösel M, Angmo D, Larsen-Olsen T T, Krebs F C (2012) Roll-to-roll fabrication of polymer solar cells. Mater Today 15:36–49Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Carle J E, Helgesen M, Madsen M V, Bundgaarda E, Krebs F C (2014) Upscaling from single cells to modules – fabrication of vacuum- and ITO-free polymer solar cells on flexible substrates with long lifetime. J Mater Chem C 2:1290–1297Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lee S, Yeo J-S, Ji Y, Cho C, Kim D-Y, Na S-I, Lee B H, LeeT (2012) Flexible organic solar cells composed of P3HT:PCBM using chemically doped graphene electrodes. Nanotechnol 23:344013Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Na S-I, Kim S-S, Jo J, Kim D-Y (2008) Efficient and flexible ITO-free organic solar cells using highly conductive polymer anodes. Adv Mater 20:4061–4067Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ohzeki M, Fujii S, Arai Y, Yanagidate T, Yanagi Y, Okukawa T, Yoshida A, Kataura H, Nishioka Y (2014) Performance improvement of flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells using PTB7:PC71BM by optimizing spin coating and drying processes. J Appl Phys, Part 1 53:02BE04(1–5)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bässler H (1994) Non-dispersive and dispersive transport in random organic photoconductors. Mol Cryst Liq Cryst Sci A 252:11–21;Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Huynh W U, Dittmer J J, Paul A (2002) Hybrid nanorod-polymer solar cells. Science 295:2425–2427Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yin Z, Zhu J, He Q, Cao X, Tan C, Chen H, Yan Q, Zhang H (2014) Graphene-based materials for solar cell applications. Adv Energy Mater 4:1300574(1–19)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Liu Z, He D, Wang Y, Wu H, Wang J (2010) Graphene doping of P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic devices. Synth Met 160:1036–1039Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chen D, Zhang H, Liu Y, Li J (2013) Graphene and its derivatives for the development of solar cells, photoelectrochemical, and photocatalytic applications. Energy Environ Sci 6:1362–1387Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Liu Q, Liu Z, Zhang X, Zhang N, Yang L, Yin S, Chen Y (2008) Organic photovoltaic cells based on an acceptor of soluble graphene. Appl Phys Lett 92:223303(1–3)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Liu Z, He D W, Wang Y, Wu H, Wang J (2010) Solution-processible functionalized graphene in donor/acceptor-type organic photovoltaic cells. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 94:1196–1200Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Yu D, Park K, Durstock M, Dai L (2011) Fullerene-grafted graphene for efficient bulk heterojunction polymer photovoltaic devices. J Phys Chem Lett 2:1113–1118Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Chauhan A K, Gusain A, Jha P, Koiry S P, Saxena V, Veerender P, Aswal D K, Gupta S K (2014) Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells. Appl Phys Lett 104:133901(1–5)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hill C M, Zhu Y, Pan S (2011) Fluorescence and electroluminescence quenching evidence of interfacial charge transfer in poly (3-hexylthiophene): graphene oxide bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices. ACS Nano 5:942–951Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Liu Q, Liu Z, Zhang X, Yang L, Zhang N, Pan G, Yin S, Chen Y, Wei J (2009) Polymer photovoltaic cells based on solution-processible graphene and P3HT. Adv Funct Mater 19:894–904Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jr W S H, Offeman R E (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80:1339–1339Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Becerril H A, Mao J, Liu Z, Stoltenberg R M, Bao Z, ChenY (2008) Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors. ACS Nano 2:463–470Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stankovich S, Piner R D, Nguyen S B T, Ruoff R S (2006) Synthesis and exfoliation of isocyanate-treated graphene oxide nanoplatelets. Carbon 44:3342–3347Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zhang B, Liu G, Chen Y, Zeng L-J, Zhu C-X, Neoh K-G, Wang C, Kang E-T (2011) Conjugated polymer-grafted reduced graphene oxide for nonvolatile rewritable memory. Chem Eur J 17:13646–13652Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Li P-P, Chen Y, Zhu J, Feng M, Zhuang X, Lin Y, Zhan H (2011) Charm-bracelet-type poly(N-vinylcarbazole) functionalized with reduced graphene oxide for broadband optical limiting. Chem Eur J 17:780–785Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zhang B, Chen Y, Liu G, Xu L-Q, Chen J, Zhu C-X, Neoh K-G, Kang E-T (2012) “Push-pull archetype of reduced graphene oxide functionalized with polyfluorene for nonvolatile rewritable memory. J Polym Sci, Part A: Polym Chem 2:378–387Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Li Y, Pan Z, Fu Y, Chen Y, Xie Z, Zhang B (2012) Soluble reduced graphene oxide functionalized with conjugated polymer for heterojunction solar cells. J Polym Sci, Part A: Polym Chem 50(9):1663–1671Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Jayawardena K D G I, Rhodes R, Gandhi K K, Prabhath M R R, Dabera G D M R, Beliatis m J, Rozanski L J, Henley S J, Silva S R P (2013) Solution processed reduced graphene oxide/metal oxide hybrid electron transport layers for highly efficient polymer solar cells. J Mater Chem A 1: 9922–9927Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wu J, Becerril H A, Bao Z, Liu Z, Chen Y, Peumans P (2008) Organic solar cells with solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes. Appl Phys Lett 92:263302(1–3)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Yin Z, Sun S, Salim T, Wu S, Huang X, He Q, Lam Y M, Zhang H (2010) Organic photovoltaic devices using highly flexible reduced graphene oxide films as transparent electrodes. ACS Nano 4:5263–5268Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bae S, Kim H, Lee Y, Xu X, Park J-S, Zheng Y, Balakrishnan J, Lei T, Kim H R, Song Y I, Kim Y-J, Kim K S, Özyilmaz B, Ahn J-H, Hong B H, Iijima S (2010) Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nat Nanotechnol 5:574–578Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Arco L G D, Zhang Y, Schlenker C W, Ryu K, Thompson M E, Zhou C (2010) Continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics. ACS Nano 4:2865–2873Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bonaccorso F, Sun Z, Hasan T, Ferrari A C (2010) Graphene photonics and optoelectronics. Nat Photonics 4: 611–622Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Choi Y Y, Kang S J, Kim H- K, Choi W M, Na S-I (2012) Multilayer graphene films as transparent electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 96:281–285Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Choe M, Lee B H, Jo G, Park J, Park W, Lee S, Hong W-K, Seong M-J, Kahng Y H, Lee K, LeeT (2010) Efficient bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells with transparent multi-layer graphene electrodes. Org Electron 11:1864–1869Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Park H S, Rowehl J A, Kim K K, Bulovic V, Kong J (2010) Doped graphene electrodes for organic solar cells. Nanotechnol 21:505204Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wang Y, Tong S W, Xu X F, Özyilmaz B, Loh K P (2011) Interface engineering of layer-by-layer stacked graphene anodes for high-performance organic solar cells. Adv Mater 23:1514–1518Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lee Y- Y, Tu K- H, Yu C- C, Li S-S, Hwang J-Y, Lin C-C, Chen K-H, Chen L-C, Chen H-L, Chen C-W (2011) Top laminated graphene electrode in a semitransparent polymer solar cell by simultaneous thermal annealing/releasing method. ACS Nano 5:6564–6570Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hsu C- L, Lin C- T, Huang J- H, Chu C-W, Wei K-H, Li L-J (2012) Layer-by-layer graphene/TCNQ stacked films as conducting anodes for organic solar cells. ACS Nano 6:5031–5039Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tung V C, Chen L M, Allen M J, Wassei J K, Nelson K, Kaner R B, Yang Y (2009) Low-temperature solution processing of graphene–carbon nanotube hybrid materials for high-performance transparent conductors. Nano Lett 9:1949–1955Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ni G- X, Zheng Y, Bae S, Tan C Y, Kahya O, Wu J, Hong B H, Yao K, Özyilmaz B (2012) Graphene–ferroelectric hybrid structure for flexible transparent electrodes. ACS Nano 6:3935–3942Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Emmanuel K, Kyriaki S, Minas M S, Fotakis C, Stratakis E (2013) Flexible organic photovoltaic cells with in situ nonthermal photoreduction of spin-coated graphene oxide electrodes. Adv Funct Mater 23:2742–2749Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, F. C. Krebs, Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 92:686–714Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kim Y- H, Lee S- H, Noh J, han S-H (2006) Performance and stability of electroluminescent device with self-assembled layers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonate) and polyelectrolytes. Thin Solid Films 510:305–310Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lagemaat J, Barnes T M, Rumbles G, Shaheen S E, Coutts T J, Weeks C, Levitsky I, Peltola J, Glatkowski P (2006) Organic solar cells with carbon nanotubes replacing In2O3:Sn as the transparent electrode. Appl Phys Lett 8:233503 (1–3)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Matyba P, Yamaguchi H, Chhowalla M, Robinson N D, Edman L (2010) Flexible and metal-free light-emitting electrochemical cells based on graphene and PEDOT:PSS as the electrode materials. ACS Nano 5:574–580Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dreyer D R, Park S, Bielawski C W, Ruoff R S (2010) The chemistry of graphene oxide. Chem Soc Rev 39:228–240Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Loh K P, Bao Q, Eda G, Chhowalla M (2010) Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications. Nat Chem 2:1015–1024Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Li S-S, Tu K-H, Lin C-C, Chen C-W, Chhowalla M (2010) Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole transport layer in polymer solar cells. ACS Nano 4:3169–3174Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kim J, Tung V C, Huang J X (2011) Water processable graphene oxide:single walled carbon nanotube composite as anode modifier for polymer solar cells. Adv Energy Mater 1:1052–1057Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Yun J M, Yeo J S, Kim J, Jeong H-G, Kim D-Y, Noh Y-J, Kim S-S, Ku B-C, Na S-I (2011) Solution-processable reduced graphene oxide as a novel alternative to PEDOT:PSS hole transport layers for highly efficient and stable polymer solar cells. Adv Mater 23:4923–4928Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Murray I P, Lou S J, Cote L J, Loser S, Kadleck C J, Xu T, Szarko J M, Rolczynski B S, Johns J E, Huang J, Yu L, Chen L X, Marks T J, HersamM C (2011) Graphene Oxide Interlayers for Robust, High-Efficiency Organic Photovoltaics. J Phys Chem Lett 2:3006–3012Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Park H, Chang S, Jean J, Cheng J J, Araujo P T, Wang M, Bawendi M G, Dresselhaus M S, Bulović V, Kong J, Gradečak S (2013) Graphene cathode-based ZnO nanowire hybrid solar cells. Nano Lett 13: 233–239Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tong S W, Mishra N, Su C L, Nalla V, Wu W, Ji W, Zhang J, Chan Y, Loh K P (2014) High-performance hybrid solar cell made from CdSe/CdTe nanocrystals supported on reduced graphene oxide and PCDTBT. Adv Funct Mater 24:1904–1910Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Liu J, Xue Y, Gao Y, Yu D, Durstock M, Dai L (2012) Hole and electron extraction layers based on graphene oxide derivatives for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells. Adv Mater 24:2228–2233Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Iwan A, Chuchmała A (2012) Perspectives of applied graphene: Polymer solar cells. Prog Polym Sci 37:1805–1828Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wan X, Huang Y, Chen Y (2012) Focusing on energy and optoelectronic applications: a journey for graphene and graphene oxide at large scale, Acc Chem Res 45(4):598-607Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Barpuzary D, Qureshi M (2013) Enhanced photovoltaic performance of semiconductor-sensitized ZnO-CdS coupled with graphene oxide as a novel photoactive material. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:11673–11682Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Science Laboratory, Department of ChemistryIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations