Speech Watermarking Based on Coding of the Harmonic Phase

  • Inma Hernaez
  • Ibon Saratxaga
  • Jianpei Ye
  • Jon Sanchez
  • Daniel Erro
  • Eva Navas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8854)


This paper presents a new speech watermarking technique using harmonic modelling of the speech signal and coding of the harmonic phase. We use a representation of the instantaneous harmonic phase which allows straightforward manipulation of its values to embed the digital watermark. The technique converts each harmonic into a communication channel, whose performance is analysed in terms of distortion and BER. The developed tests show that with a simple coding scheme a bit rate of 300bps can be achieved with minimal perceptual distortion and almost zero BER.


Data Hiding Digital Speech Watermarking Relative Phase Shift 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Nematollahi, M., Al-Haddad, S.: An overview of digital speech watermarking. International Journal of Speech Technology 16(4), 471–488 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bender, W., Gruhl, D., Morimoto, N., Lu, A.: Techniques for data hiding. IBM Syst. J. 35(3-4), 313–336 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arnold, M.: Audio watermarking: features, applications and algorithms. In: Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo, vol. 2, pp. 1013–1016 (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cox, I.J., Miller, M.L., Bloom, J.A., Fridrich, J., Kalker, T.: Digital Watermarking and Steganography, 2nd edn. The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Multimedia Information and Systems. Morgan Kaufmann (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bai, Y., Bai, S., Zhu, G., You, C., Liu, B.: A blind audio watermarking algorithm based on fft coeficients quantization. In: Proceedings of the Int. Conf. on Artificial Intelligence and Education (ICAIE), pp. 529–533 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, S., Leung, H.: Speech bandwidth extension by data hiding and phonetic classification. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), vol. 4, pp. IV593–IV596 (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sakaguchi, S., Arai, T., Murahara, Y.: The efect of polarity inversion of speech on human perception and data hiding as an application. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), vol. 2, pp. II917–II920 (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hsieh, C.T., Sou, P.Y.: Blind cepstrum domain audio watermarking based on time energy features. In: Proc. of the 14th Int. Conf. on Digital Signal Processing, vol. 2, pp. 705–708 (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Megías, D., Serra-Ruiz, J., Fallahpour, M.: Efficient self-synchronised blind audio watermarking system based on time domain and FFT amplitude modification. Signal Processing 90(12), 3078–3092 (2010)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Saratxaga, I., Hernaez, I., Pucher, M., Navas, E., Sainz, I.: Perceptual importance of the phase related information in speech. In: Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, pp. 1448–1451 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ansari, R., Malik, H., Khokhar, A.: Data-hiding in audio using frequency selective phase alteration. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), vol. 5, pp. V389–V392 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dong, X., Bocko, M., Ignjatovic, Z.: Data hiding via phase manipulation of audio signals. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), vol. 5, pp. V377–V380 (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liew, P., Armand, M.: Inaudible watermarking via phase manipulation of random frequencies. Multimedia Tools and Applications 35(3), 357–377 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kuo, S., Johnston, J.D., Turin, W., Quackenbush, S.R.: Covert audio watermarking using perceptually tuned signal independent multiband phase modulation. In: Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, vol. II, pp. 1753–1756 (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hofbauer, K., Kubin, G., Kleijn, W.B.: Speech Watermarking for Analog Flat-Fading Bandpass Channels. IEEE Trans. on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing 17(8), 1624–1637 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen, S.H., Yu, S.Y., Chang, C.H.: Speech watermarking based on wavelet transform and bch coding. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous and Trustworthy Computing (SUTC), pp. 507–512 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huang, J., Wang, Y., Shi, Y.: A blind audio watermarking algorithm with self-synchronization. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 3, pp. 627–630 (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Celik, M., Sharma, G., Tekalp, A.: Pitch and duration modification for speech watermarking. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), vol. 2, pp. 17–20 (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Akhaee, M., Kalantari, N., Marvasti, F.: Robust multiplicative audio and speech watermarking using statistical modelling. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications (ICC), pp. 1–5 (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hatada, M., Sakai, T., Komatsu, N., Yamazaki, Y.: Digital watermarking based on process of speech production. In: Proc. SPIE Multimedia Systems and Applications V, vol. 4861, pp. 258–267 (2002)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Saratxaga, I., Hernaez, I., Erro, D., Navas, E., Sanchez, J.: Simple representation of signal phase for harmonic speech models. Electronics Letters 45(7), 381–383 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stylianou, Y.: Harmonic Plus Noise Models for Speech, Combined with Statistical Methods, for Speech and Speaker Modification. Ph.D. thesis, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, Paris, France (1996)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inma Hernaez
    • 1
  • Ibon Saratxaga
    • 1
  • Jianpei Ye
    • 1
  • Jon Sanchez
    • 1
  • Daniel Erro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Eva Navas
    • 1
  1. 1.Aholab (UPV/EHU), ETSI BilbaoBilbaoSpain
  2. 2.IKERBASQUEBilbaoSpain

Personalised recommendations