Remineralizing Nanomaterials for Minimally Invasive Dentistry

  • Xu ZhangEmail author
  • Xuliang Deng
  • Yi Wu


Modern dentistry advocates early prevention of tooth decay and minimally invasive management of dental caries (minimally invasive dentistry, MID). Remineralization is an important therapeutic method in MID. At the moment, traditional remineralizing agents and methods are not adapted to the requirements of MID. Recent studies indicate that the development of nanomaterials, especially biomimetic ones, as remineralizing agents, provides novel remineralizing strategies for MID. Here, we review the progress of the development of remineralizing nanomaterials for different applications in MID. Some nanomaterials, including calcium fluoride, hydroxyapatite, and amorphous calcium phosphate in nanoscales, are incorporated into restorative materials such as composite resins, glass ionomers, and adhesive systems. These dental materials play a remineralizing role through releasing fluoride calcium and phosphate ions. Other nanomaterials composed of stabilizers and amorphous calcium phosphates (ACP), such as nanocomplexes of casein phosphopeptides (CPP) and ACP, polyacrylic acid (PAA)-ACP, polyaspartic acid (PASP)-ACP, and phosphorylated chitosan (Pchi)-ACP, provide a biomimetic remineralizing strategy by mimicking biomineralization processes, which could de novo form dental hard tissues through nonclassical crystallization pathways. However, it is unpractical to restore small clinically visible cavities with nanomaterials reviewed in this chapter at present. Most of the research covered in this chapter focuses primarily on laboratory tests. Future comprehensive research with respect to clinical applicability is required before employing remineralizing nanomaterials routinely in clinical practices.


Minimally invasive dentistry Caries Nanomaterial Remineralization Biomimetic 



Amorphous calcium phosphates


Calcium fluoride


Carboxymethyl chitosan


Casein phosphopeptides


Dentin matrix protein


Dentin phosphoprotein also known as DMP2 or phosphophoryn


Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy




Fluorapatite Ca10(PO4)6F2


Funcionalized β-TCP


Guided tissue remineralization




Ionic activity product


The solubility product


Minimally invasive dentistry


Sodium fluoride


CaF2 nanoparticle


Noncollagenous proteins




Nano-sized HAP


Octacalcium phosphate


Polyacrylic acid


Polyaspartic acid


Phosphorylated chitosan


Ethylene oxide


Polymer-induced liquid-precursor


Polyvinylphosphonic acid


Gas constant 8.314 J · K−1 mol−1




Selected area electron diffraction


Scanning electron microscopy


Sodium trimetaphosphate


Absolute temperature


Transmission electron microscope


Sodium tripolyphosphate


Beta tricalcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EndodonticsSchool and Hospital of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical UniversityHeping District, TianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Geriatric DentistyPeking University School and Hospital of StomatologyBeijingChina

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