Advertisement

Nanoparticles for Dentin Tissue Stabilization

  • Anil Kishen
  • Annie ShresthaEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Nanotechnology has been applied to manage previously infected dentin. These treatment procedures are aimed for non-invasive elimination of residual bacterial biofilms, improve the resistance of dentin to enzymatic (host/bacterial-mediated) degradation and improve the mechanical integrity of dentin matrix. This chapter discusses the issues associated with previously infected dentin, strategies used to strengthen dentin tissue matrix and current progress/potential applications of various functional nanoparticles for the physical, chemical and mechanical stabilization of dentin. Nanoparticles of various materials (polymers, metals), size and shape as well as modifications are available depending on the requirement. Nanoparticles could be tailored to perform specific or multiple functions based on the tissue-specific requirements. Carefully tailored nanoparticles with sound scientific basis on the mechanism of action, safety and dose will find potential advantage in minimally invasive/non-invasive dentin tissue stabilization.

Keywords

Dentin Collagen Crosslinking Nanoparticles Stabilization Mechanical properties Chemical stability 

References

  1. 1.
    Yang SF, Rivera EM, Walton RE. Vertical root fracture in nonendodontically treated teeth. J Endod. 1995;21:337–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pitts DL, Matheny HE, Nicholls JI. An in vitro study of spreader loads required to cause vertical root fracture during lateral condensation. J Endod. 1983;9:544–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chan CP, Tseng SC, Lin CP, Huang CC, Tsai TP, Chen CC. Vertical root fracture in nonendodontically treated teeth–a clinical report of 64 cases in Chinese patients. J Endod. 1998;24:678–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yeh CJ. Fatigue root fracture: a spontaneous root fracture in non-endodontically treated teeth. Br Dent J. 1997;182:261–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Moule AJ, Kahler B. Diagnosis and management of teeth with vertical root fractures. Aust Dent J. 1999;44:75–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Testori T, Badino M, Castagnola M. Vertical root fractures in endodontically treated teeth: a clinical survey of 36 cases. J Endod. 1993;19:87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Torbjorner A, Karlsson S, Odman PA. Survival rate and failure characteristics for two post designs. J Prosthet Dent. 1995;73:439–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Morfis AS. Vertical root fractures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1990;69:631–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bergman B, Lundquist P, Sjogren U, Sundquist G. Restorative and endodontic results after treatment with cast posts and cores. J Prosthet Dent. 1989;61:10–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fuss Z, Lustig J, Tamse A. Prevalence of vertical root fractures in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Int Endod J. 1999;32:283–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coppens CRMD, DeMoor RJG. Prevalence of vertical root fractures in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Int Endod J. 2003;36:926.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kishen A. Mechanisms and risk factors for fracture predilection in endodontically treated teeth. Endod Top. 2006;13.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vier FV, Figueiredo JA. Internal apical resorption and its correlation with the type of apical lesion. Int Endod J. 2004;37:730–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vier FV, Figueiredo JA. Prevalence of different periapical lesions associated with human teeth and their correlation with the presence and extension of apical external root resorption. Int Endod J. 2002;35:710–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ferrari M, Mason PN, Goracci C, Pashley DH, Tay FR. Collagen degradation in endodontically treated teeth after clinical function. J Dent Res. 2004;83:414–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hubble TS, Hatton JF, Nallapareddy SR, Murray BE, Gillespie MJ. Influence of Enterococcus faecalis proteases and the collagen-binding protein, Ace, on adhesion to dentin. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2003;18:121–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Niu W, Yoshioka T, Kobayashi C, Suda H. A scanning electron microscopic study of dentinal erosion by final irrigation with EDTA and NaOCl solutions. Int Endod J. 2002;35:934–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Calt S, Serper A. Time-dependent effects of EDTA on dentin structures. J Endod. 2002;28:17–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tay FR, Hosoya Y, Loushine RJ, Pashley DH, Weller RN, Low DC. Ultrastructure of intraradicular dentin after irrigation with BioPure MTAD. II. The consequence of obturation with an epoxy resin-based sealer. J Endod. 2006;32:473–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Habelitz S, Balooch M, Marshall SJ, Balooch G, Marshall Jr GW. In situ atomic force microscopy of partially demineralized human dentin collagen fibrils. J Struct Biol. 2002;138:227–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bertassoni LE, Orgel JP, Antipova O, Swain MV. The dentin organic matrix – limitations of restorative dentistry hidden on the nanometer scale. Acta Biomater. 2012;8:2419–33.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kinney JH, Pople JA, Marshall GW, Marshall SJ. Collagen orientation and crystallite size in human dentin: a small angle x-ray scattering study. Calcif Tissue Int. 2001;69:31–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rivera EM, Yamauchi M. Site comparisons of dentine collagen cross-links from extracted human teeth. Arch Oral Biol. 1993;38:541–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kinney JH, Marshall SJ, Marshall GW. The mechanical properties of human dentin: a critical review and re-evaluation of the dental literature. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14:13–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gutmann JL. The dentin-root complex: anatomic and biologic considerations in restoring endodontically treated teeth. J Prosthet Dent. 1992;67:458–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Currey JD. Effects of difference in mineralization on the mechanical properties of bone. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Biol Sci. 1984;13:509–18.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miguez PA, Pereira PN, Atsawasuwan P, Yamauchi M. Collagen cross-linking and ultimate tensile strength in dentin. J Dent Res. 2004;83:807–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kinney JH, Habelitz S, Marshall SJ, Marshall GW. The importance of intrafibrillar mineralization of collagen on the mechanical properties of dentin. J Dent Res. 2003;82:957–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jameson MW, Hood JA, Tidmarsh BG. The effects of dehydration and rehydration on some mechanical properties of human dentine. J Biomech. 1993;26:1055–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pashley DH, Agee KA, Carvalho RM, Lee KW, Tay FR, Callison TE. Effects of water and water-free polar solvents on the tensile properties of demineralized dentin. Dent Mater. 2003;19:347–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vincent J. Structural biomaterials. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1990.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kishen A, George S, Kumar R. Enterococcus faecalis-mediated biomineralized biofilm formation on root canal dentine in vitro. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006;77:406–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    George S, Kishen A, Song KP. The role of environmental changes on monospecies biofilm formation on root canal wall by Enterococcus faecalis. J Endod. 2005;31:867–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vire DE. Failure of endodontically treated teeth: classification and evaluation. J Endod. 1991;17:338–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    van Strijp AJ, Jansen DC, DeGroot J, ten Cate JM, Everts V. Host-derived proteinases and degradation of dentine collagen in situ. Caries Res. 2003;37:58–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carrilho MR, Geraldeli S, Tay F, de Goes MF, Carvalho RM, Tjaderhane L, et al. In vivo preservation of the hybrid layer by chlorhexidine. J Dent Res. 2007;86:529–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mazzoni A, Mannello F, Tay FR, Tonti GA, Papa S, Mazzotti G, et al. Zymographic analysis and characterization of MMP-2 and -9 forms in human sound dentin. J Dent Res. 2007;86:436–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Itoh T, Nakamura H, Kishi J, Hayakawa T. The activation of matrix metalloproteinases by a whole-cell extract from Prevotella nigrescens. J Endod. 2009;35:55–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Huang FM, Yang SF, Chang YC. Up-regulation of gelatinases and tissue type plasminogen activator by root canal sealers in human osteoblastic cells. J Endod. 2008;34:291–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hebling J, Pashley DH, Tjaderhane L, Tay FR. Chlorhexidine arrests subclinical degradation of dentin hybrid layers in vivo. J Dent Res. 2005;84:741–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hashimoto M, Tay FR, Ohno H, Sano H, Kaga M, Yiu C, et al. SEM and TEM analysis of water degradation of human dentinal collagen. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2003;66:287–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pashley DH, Tay FR, Yiu C, Hashimoto M, Breschi L, Carvalho RM, et al. Collagen degradation by host-derived enzymes during aging. J Dent Res. 2004;83:216–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Carrilho MR, Tay FR, Donnelly AM, Agee KA, Tjaderhane L, Mazzoni A, et al. Host-derived loss of dentin matrix stiffness associated with solubilization of collagen. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009;90:373–80.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kim MM, Kim SK. Chitooligosaccharides inhibit activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinnase-2 in human dermal fibroblasts. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:2661–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhang K, Kim YK, Cadenaro M, Bryan TE, Sidow SJ, Loushine RJ, et al. Effects of different exposure times and concentrations of sodium hypochlorite/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on the structural integrity of mineralized dentin. J Endod. 2010;36:105–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Oliveira LD, Carvalho CA, Nunes W, Valera MC, Camargo CH, Jorge AO. Effects of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite on the microhardness of root canal dentin. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;104:e125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Saleh AA, Ettman WM. Effect of endodontic irrigation solutions on microhardness of root canal dentine. J Dent. 1999;27:43–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    White JD, Lacefield WR, Chavers LS, Eleazer PD. The effect of three commonly used endodontic materials on the strength and hardness of root dentin. J Endod. 2002;28:828–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shemesh H, Bier CA, Wu MK, Tanomaru-Filho M, Wesselink PR. The effects of canal preparation and filling on the incidence of dentinal defects. Int Endod J. 2009;42:208–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kishen A, Messer HH. Vertical root fractures: radiological diagnosis. In: Basrani B, editor. Endodontic radiology. 2nd ed. Ames: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012. p. 235–50.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rao KP. Recent developments of collagen-based materials for medical applications and drug delivery systems. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 1995;7:623–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sung HW, Chang Y, Liang IL, Chang WH, Chen YC. Fixation of biological tissues with a naturally occurring crosslinking agent: fixation rate and effects of pH, temperature, and initial fixative concentration. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000;52:77–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Spikes JD, Shen HR, Kopeckova P, Kopecek J. Photodynamic crosslinking of proteins. III. Kinetics of the FMN- and rose bengal-sensitized photooxidation and intermolecular crosslinking of model tyrosine-containing N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymers. Photochem Photobiol. 1999;70:130–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jayakrishnan A, Jameela SR. Glutaraldehyde as a fixative in bioprostheses and drug delivery matrices. Biomaterials. 1996;17:471–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bedran-Russo AK, Pashley DH, Agee K, Drummond JL, Miescke KJ. Changes in stiffness of demineralized dentin following application of collagen crosslinkers. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2008;86B:330–4.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bedran-Russo AK, Pereira PN, Duarte WR, Drummond JL, Yamauchi M. Application of crosslinkers to dentin collagen enhances the ultimate tensile strength. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2007;80:268–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sung HW, Chang WH, Ma CY, Lee MH. Crosslinking of biological tissues using genipin and/or carbodiimide. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2003;64:427–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Qin C, Xu J, Zhang Y. Spectroscopic investigation of the function of aqueous 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate/glutaraldehyde solution as a dentin desensitizer. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114:354–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Loke WK, Khor E. Validation of the shrinkage temperature of animal tissue for bioprosthetic heart valve application by differential scanning calorimetry. Biomaterials. 1995;16:251–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Simmons DM, Kearney JN. Evaluation of collagen cross-linking techniques for the stabilization of tissue matrices. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 1993;17(Pt 1):23–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Beauchamp Jr RO, St Clair MB, Fennell TR, Clarke DO, Morgan KT, Kari FW. A critical review of the toxicology of glutaraldehyde. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1992;22:143–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shrestha A, Friedman S, Kishen A. Photodynamically crosslinked and chitosan-incorporated dentin collagen. J Dent Res. 2011;90:1346–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Madhavan K, Belchenko D, Motta A, Tan W. Evaluation of composition and crosslinking effects on collagen-based composite constructs. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:1413–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Liu Y, Chen M, Yao X, Xu C, Zhang Y, Wang Y. Enhancement in dentin collagen’s biological stability after proanthocyanidins treatment in clinically relevant time periods. Dent Mater. 2013;29:485–92.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bedran-Russo AK, Castellan CS, Shinohara MS, Hassan L, Antunes A. Characterization of biomodified dentin matrices for potential preventive and reparative therapies. Acta Biomater. 2011;7:1735–41.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bedran-Russo AK, Yoo KJ, Ema KC, Pashley DH. Mechanical properties of tannic-acid-treated dentin matrix. J Dent Res. 2009;88:807–11.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rafat M, Li F, Fagerholm P, Lagali NS, Watsky MA, Munger R, et al. PEG-stabilized carbodiimide crosslinked collagen-chitosan hydrogels for corneal tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2008;29:3960–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Olde Damink LH, Dijkstra PJ, van Luyn MJ, van Wachem PB, Nieuwenhuis P, Feijen J. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen using a water-soluble carbodiimide. Biomaterials. 1996;17:765–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Staros JV, Wright RW, Swingle DM. Enhancement by N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide of water-soluble carbodiimide-mediated coupling reactions. Anal Biochem. 1986;156:220–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Han B, Jaurequi J, Tang BW, Nimni ME. Proanthocyanidin: a natural crosslinking reagent for stabilizing collagen matrices. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2003;65:118–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Itoh S, Takakuda K, Kawabata S, Aso Y, Kasai K, Itoh H, et al. Evaluation of cross-linking procedures of collagen tubes used in peripheral nerve repair. Biomaterials. 2002;23:4475–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Weadock KS, Miller EJ, Bellincampi LD, Zawadsky JP, Dunn MG. Physical crosslinking of collagen fibers: comparison of ultraviolet irradiation and dehydrothermal treatment. J Biomed Mater Res. 1995;29:1373–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Billiar K, Murray J, Laude D, Abraham G, Bachrach N. Effects of carbodiimide crosslinking conditions on the physical properties of laminated intestinal submucosa. J Biomed Mater Res. 2001;56:101–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Redmond RW, Gamlin JN. A compilation of singlet oxygen yields from biologically relevant molecules. Photochem Photobiol. 1999;70:391–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dubbelman TM, Haasnoot C, van Steveninck J. Temperature dependence of photodynamic red cell membrane damage. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980;601:220–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shrestha A, Hamblin MR, Kishen A. Photoactivated rose bengal functionalized chitosan nanoparticles produce antibacterial/biofilm activity and stabilize dentin-collagen. Nanomedicine. 2014;10(3):491–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fawzy AS, Nitisusanta LI, Iqbal K, Daood U, Beng LT, Neo J. Chitosan/Riboflavin-modified demineralized dentin as a potential substrate for bonding. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2013;17:278–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Daood U, Iqbal K, Nitisusanta LI, Fawzy AS. Effect of chitosan/riboflavin modification on resin/dentin interface: spectroscopic and microscopic investigations. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013;10:1846–56.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fawzy AS, Nitisusanta LI, Iqbal K, Daood U, Neo J. Riboflavin as a dentin crosslinking agent: ultraviolet A versus blue light. Dent Mater. 2012;28:1284–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Chan BP, Chan OC, So KF. Effects of photochemical crosslinking on the microstructure of collagen and a feasibility study on controlled protein release. Acta Biomater. 2008;4:1627–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chan BP, Amann C, Yaroslavsky AN, Title C, Smink D, Zarins B, et al. Photochemical repair of Achilles tendon rupture in a rat model. J Surg Res. 2005;124:274–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wollensak G, Iomdina E. Long-term biomechanical properties of rabbit cornea after photodynamic collagen crosslinking. Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87:48–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ibusuki S, Halbesma GJ, Randolph MA, Redmond RW, Kochevar IE, Gill TJ. Photochemically cross-linked collagen gels as three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. Tissue Eng. 2007;13:1995–2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wollensak G, Iomdina E, Dittert DD, Salamatina O, Stoltenburg G. Cross-linking of scleral collagen in the rabbit using riboflavin and UVA. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2005;83:477–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Everaerts F, Torrianni M, van Luyn M, van Wachem P, Feijen J, Hendriks M. Reduced calcification of bioprostheses, cross-linked via an improved carbodiimide based method. Biomaterials. 2004;25:5523–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Taravel MN, Domard A. Collagen and its interactions with chitosan, III some biological and mechanical properties. Biomaterials. 1996;17:451–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chen J, Li Q, Xu J, Huang Y, Ding Y, Deng H, et al. Study on biocompatibility of complexes of collagen-chitosan-sodium hyaluronate and cornea. Artif Organs. 2005;29:104–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sionkowska A, Wisniewski M, Skopinska J, Kennedy CJ, Wess TJ. Molecular interactions in collagen and chitosan blends. Biomaterials. 2004;25:795–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chandy T, Sharma CP. Chitosan–as a biomaterial. Biomater Artif Cells Artif Organs. 1990;18:1–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tan W, Krishnaraj R, Desai TA. Evaluation of nanostructured composite collagen–chitosan matrices for tissue engineering. Tissue Eng. 2001;7:203–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Moczek L, Nowakowska M. Novel water-soluble photosensitizers from chitosan. Biomacromolecules. 2007;8:433–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Persadmehr A, Torneck CD, Cvitkovitch DG, Pinto V, Talior I, Kazembe M, et al. Bioactive chitosan nanoparticles and photodynamic therapy inhibit collagen degradation in vitro. J Endod. 2014;40:703–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tian L, Peng C, Shi Y, Guo X, Zhong B, Qi J, et al. Effect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles on dentinal tubule occlusion: an in vitro study using SEM and image analysis. Dent Mater J. 2014;33:125–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lee SY, Kwon HK, Kim BI. Effect of dentinal tubule occlusion by dentifrice containing nano-carbonate apatite. J Oral Rehabil. 2008;35:847–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mitchell JC, Musanje L, Ferracane JL. Biomimetic dentin desensitizer based on nano-structured bioactive glass. Dent Mater. 2011;27:386–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Besinis A, van Noort R, Martin N. Infiltration of demineralized dentin with silica and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Dent Mater. 2012;28:1012–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Allison RR, Mota HC, Bagnato VS, Sibata CH. Bio-nanotechnology and photodynamic therapy–state of the art review. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2008;5:19–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Decraene V, Pratten J, Wilson M. An assessment of the activity of a novel light-activated antimicrobial coating in a clinical environment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008;29:1181–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Nakabayashi N. Bonding mechanism of resins and the tooth. Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi. 1982;49:410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Nakabayashi N, Kojima K, Masuhara E. The promotion of adhesion by the infiltration of monomers into tooth substrates. J Biomed Mater Res. 1982;16:265–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Walter R, Miguez PA, Arnold RR, Pereira PN, Duarte WR, Yamauchi M. Effects of natural cross-linkers on the stability of dentin collagen and the inhibition of root caries in vitro. Caries Res. 2008;42:263–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nam KS, Shon YH. Suppression of metastasis of human breast cancer cells by chitosan oligosaccharides. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:629–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Shen KT, Chen MH, Chan HY, Jeng JH, Wang YJ. Inhibitory effects of chitooligosaccharides on tumor growth and metastasis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1864–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Tezvergil-Mutluay A, Mutluay MM, Gu LS, Zhang K, Agee KA, Carvalho RM, et al. The anti-MMP activity of benzalkonium chloride. J Dent. 2011;39:57–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gendron R, Grenier D, Sorsa T, Mayrand D. Inhibition of the activities of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 8, and 9 by chlorhexidine. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999;6:437–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Breschi L, Mazzoni A, Nato F, Carrilho M, Visintini E, Tjaderhane L, et al. Chlorhexidine stabilizes the adhesive interface: a 2-year in vitro study. Dent Mater. 2010;26:320–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Liu SQ, Qiu B, Chen LY, Peng H, Du YM. The effects of carboxymethylated chitosan on metalloproteinase-1, -3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 gene expression in cartilage of experimental osteoarthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2005;26:52–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Cova A, Breschi L, Nato F, Ruggeri Jr A, Carrilho M, Tjaderhane L, et al. Effect of UVA-activated riboflavin on dentin bonding. J Dent Res. 2011;90:1439–45.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pashley DH, Tay FR, Breschi L, Tjaderhane L, Carvalho RM, Carrilho M, et al. State of the art etch-and-rinse adhesives. Dent Mater. 2011;27:1–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tezvergil-Mutluay A, Mutluay MM, Agee KA, Seseogullari-Dirihan R, Hoshika T, Cadenaro M, et al. Carbodiimide cross-linking inactivates soluble and matrix-bound MMPs, in vitro. J Dent Res. 2012;91:192–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Schwartz RS. Adhesive dentistry and endodontics. Part 2: bonding in the root canal system-the promise and the problems: a review. J Endod. 2006;32:1125–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schwartz RS, Fransman R. Adhesive dentistry and endodontics: materials, clinical strategies and procedures for restoration of access cavities: a review. J Endod. 2005;31:151–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Tay FR, Pashley DH. Monoblocks in root canals: a hypothetical or a tangible goal. J Endod. 2007;33:391–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gwinnett AJ. Quantitative contribution of resin infiltration/hybridization to dentin bonding. Am J Dent. 1993;6:7–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Garcia-Godoy F, Tay FR, Pashley DH, Feilzer A, Tjaderhane L, Pashley EL. Degradation of resin-bonded human dentin after 3 years of storage. Am J Dent. 2007;20:109–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tay FR, Hashimoto M, Pashley DH, Peters MC, Lai SC, Yiu CK, et al. Aging affects two modes of nanoleakage expression in bonded dentin. J Dent Res. 2003;82:537–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Al-Ammar A, Drummond JL, Bedran-Russo AK. The use of collagen cross-linking agents to enhance dentin bond strength. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009;91:419–24.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Melo MAS, Guedes SFF, Xu HKK, et al. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management. Trends Biotechnol. 2013;31(8):459–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endodontics, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations