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Nanomedicine: Size-Related Drug Delivery Applications, Including Periodontics and Endodontics

  • Xu Wen Ng
  • Raghavendra C. Mundargi
  • Subbu S. VenkatramanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we discuss polymer- and liposome-based nanocarriers used in the delivery of bioactive molecules, from drugs to proteins. The focus is on the enhancements in efficacy of bioactive molecules when nanotechnology is used for delivering them. The perspective centres around commercial and clinical successes and a rationalization of these successes. Microparticulate systems are also discussed in relation to their nano-counterparts, and the advantages of nano size are emphasized in relevant applications. In general, the main application of nanocarriers is in cancer therapy; however, with the ability to programme sustained release of bioactive molecules from certain types of nanoparticles, other applications in ocular, cardiovascular and periodontic/endodontic therapy may be possible.

Keywords

Nanotherapeutics Liposomes Nanoparticles Sustained release Local delivery Periodontic and endodontic 

Abbreviations

CMC

Critical micellar concentration

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DOX

Doxorubicin

DPPC

Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

DSPE

Distearoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine

DXY

Doxycycline

EPM

Extracellular polymeric matrix

EPR

Enhanced Permeation and Retention

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

GI

Gingival index

HLE

Harungana madagascariensis Lam. Ex Poir.

IOP

Intraocular pressure

IV

Intravenous

MIC

Minocycline

NC

NanoCarriers

PCL

Poly (caprolactone)

PD

Probing depth

PDT

Photodynamic therapy

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PI

Phosphatidylinositol

PLA

(Poly l-lactide)

PLGA

(Poly (d,l-lactic acid and Glycolic acid copolymer)

PS

Photosensitizers

PVA

(Poly vinyl Alcohol)

PVP

Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)

RES

Reticulo-endothelial system

RPE

Retinal pigmented epithelium

S. oralis

Streptococcus oralis

S. sanguis

Streptococuss sanguis

SA

Steraylamine

SESD

Spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion

TCL

Tetracycline

TCS

Triclosan

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

Tg

Glass transition temperatures

Tm

Melting points

TPP

Tripolyphosphate

TSA

Tissue-specific antigen

ULV

Uni lamellar vesicle

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge support from the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University for part of this work.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xu Wen Ng
    • 1
  • Raghavendra C. Mundargi
    • 1
  • Subbu S. Venkatraman
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Materials Science & EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

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