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Nanomaterial Properties: Implications for Safe Medical Applications of Nanotechnology

  • Saji GeorgeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Nanomaterials with exciting functional properties are being increasingly used for therapeutic applications. Research studies over the past decade have shown that properties that make nanomaterials useful for their therapeutic application may also give rise to potential hazardous outcomes. Experimental evidences suggest that variations in nanomaterial size, shape, aspect ratio, surface chemistry, dispersal state and bio-persistence in addition to material ‘specific’ properties could all contribute individually or combinatorially to biological injury via toxicological pathways. While nanomaterial-induced injury pathways could be associated with human disease conditions, it should be noted that currently, there is no human disease that can be directly related to the exposure to engineered nanomaterials. Therefore, in this book chapter, the term ‘toxicity’ is referring to nanomaterial-induced injury mechanisms from experimental studies and details the major properties of nanomaterials in relation to their potential adverse outcomes. In addition, topics on strategies to elucidate property–activity relationships, merits and demerits of cellular models and animal models of toxicology and the use of high-throughput screening for rapid identification of ‘danger signal’ has been emphasized to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding on the discipline of ‘nanotoxicology’.

Keywords

Nanotoxicology Property–activity relationship Cellular models Animal models Cytotoxicity Pro-inflammatory potential Oxidative stress High-throughput screening High-content screening 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Sustainable NanotechnologySchool of Chemical & Life Sciences, Nanyang PolytechnicSingaporeSingapore

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