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Characterization of Nanomaterials/Nanoparticles

  • Koon Gee NeohEmail author
  • Min Li
  • En-Tang Kang
Chapter

Abstract

In recent years, engineered nanoparticles have garnered increasing attention due to their potential for application in areas ranging from consumer and industrial products to medical diagnostics and therapeutics. This potential arises from the unique physical and chemical properties associated with the high surface-to-mass ratio and quantum phenomena of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are in the same size range as many biomolecules such as proteins and membrane receptors, and their interactions with these biomolecules can be controlled by tuning the surface property/composition of the nanoparticles. Thus, nanoparticles can serve as useful imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic agents. On the other hand, these nanoparticles can also give rise to cytotoxic effects. Hence, it is imperative to carry out detailed characterization of engineered nanoparticles, especially those intended for medical applications, to predict their behavior in the in vivo environment. This chapter describes some methods that are useful for characterizing nanoparticles and their advantages, limitations, and challenges.

Keywords

Particle size Surface charge Surface composition Protein adsorption Cellular uptake Cytotoxicity 

Abbreviations

AES

Auger electron spectroscopy

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

ATP

Adenosine 5′-triphosphate

ATR-FTIR

Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

CLSM

Confocal laser scanning microscope

DCS

Differential centrifugal sedimentation

DLS

Dynamic light scattering

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

ELS

Electrophoretic light scattering

ESCA

Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

FESEM

Field emission scanning electron microscopy

FTIR

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

HPG

Hyperbranched polyglycerol

HRMAS NMR

High resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

ICP

Inductively coupled plasma

ICP-MS

ICP-mass spectrometry

ICP-OES

ICP-optical emission spectrometry

INT

2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride

ITC

Isothermal titration calorimetry

LEIS

Low-energy ion scattering

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

MTS

5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-3-(4-sulfophenyl) tetrazolium inner salt

MTT

3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide

MTX

Methotrexate

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADH

Reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

NTA

Nanoparticle tracking analysis

PAN

Polyacrylonitrile

PBS

Phosphate buffered saline

PEG

Polyethylene glycol

PDI

Polydispersity index

ppb

Parts per billion

ppm

Parts per million

ppt

Parts per trillion

RES

Reticuloendothelial system

RF

Radiofrequency

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

STM

Scanning tunneling microscopy

SWCNTs

Single-walled carbon nanotubes

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

TOF-SIMS

Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry

WST-1

2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium

WSTs

Water-soluble tetrazolium salts

XPS

x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

XTT

2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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