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Advanced Nanomaterials: Promises for Improved Dental Tissue Regeneration

  • Janet R. Xavier
  • Prachi Desai
  • Venu Gopal Varanasi
  • Ibtisam Al-Hashimi
  • Akhilesh K. GaharwarEmail author

Abstract

Nanotechnology is emerging as an interdisciplinary field that is undergoing rapid development and has become a powerful tool for various biomedical applications such as tissue regeneration, drug delivery, biosensors, gene transfection, and imaging. Nanomaterial-based design is able to mimic some of the mechanical and structural properties of native tissue and can promote biointegration. Ceramic-, metal-, and carbon-based nanoparticles possess unique physical, chemical, and biological characteristics due to the high surface-to-volume ratio. A range of synthetic nanoparticles such as hydroxyapatite, bioglass, titanium, zirconia, and silver nanoparticles are proposed for dental restoration due to their unique bioactive characteristic. This review focuses on the most recent development in the field of nanomaterials with emphasis on dental tissue engineering that provides an inspiration for the development of such advanced biomaterials. In particular, we discuss synthesis and fabrication of bioactive nanomaterials, examine their current limitations, and conclude with future directions in designing more advanced nanomaterials.

Keywords

Nanomaterials Nanocomposites Biomedical applications Drug delivery Bioactivity Dental tissue engineering 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet R. Xavier
    • 1
  • Prachi Desai
    • 1
  • Venu Gopal Varanasi
    • 2
  • Ibtisam Al-Hashimi
    • 3
  • Akhilesh K. Gaharwar
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Biomedical EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Biomedical SciencesTexas A&M University Baylor College of DentistryDallasUSA
  3. 3.PeriodonticsTexas A&M University Baylor College of DentistryDallasUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Materials Science and EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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