Achalasia pp 31-38 | Cite as

Botulinum Toxin for Achalasia

  • Hiroshi MashimoEmail author


Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is being used for the treatment of various conditions including upper motor neuron syndrome, hyperhidrosis, various spastic disorders including blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, neurogenic detrusor over-activity, focal dystonias, strabismus, vaginismus, and achalasia. Emerging uses for botulinum toxin type A include chronic musculoskeletal pain, vocal cord dysfunction, and allergic rhinitis. The goal of this chapter is to describe the use of BoNT in the treatment of patients with achalasia, focusing on the clinical evidence along with a description of the side-effects and contraindications.


Achalasia Botulinum toxin injection Pathophysiology Mechanism of action Outcomes 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyBoston VA Healthcare System, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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