Simple Modeling of Time-Dependent Behavior for Structured Soils

  • Teruo NakaiEmail author
  • Hossain Md. Shahin
  • Hiroyuki Kyokawa
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering book series (SSGG)


A simple model to describe time-dependent behavior of various soils in 1D stress conditions is presented in this paper. The model is formulated not using the usual viscoplastic theories such as over-stress type and non-stationary flow surface type but utilizing the subloading surface concept by Hashiguchi (1980), and paying attention to the experimental results that the normally consolidation line (NCL) on the e–ln σ plane shift depending on the strain rate. The present model can describe various time-dependent behaviors not only of normally consolidated soil but also of over consolidated and naturally deposited soils in the same manner without violating the objectivities. The 1D model can easily be extended to the 3D using the t ij concept (Nakai and Mihara 1984).


Void Ratio Structure Soil Plastic Change Evolution Rule Compression Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adachi T, Oka F (1982) Constitutive equation for normally consolidated clays based on elasto/viscoplasticity. Soils Found 22(4):57–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asaoka A, Noda T, Yamada E, Kaneda K, Nakano M (2002) An elasto-plastic description of two distinct volume change mechanisms of soils. Soils Found 42(5):47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hashiguchi K (1980) Constitutive equation of elastoplastic materials with elasto-plastic transition. J Appl Mech ASME 102(2):266–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Nakai T (2012) Constitutive modeling of geomaterials: principles and applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Nakai T, Mihara Y (1984) A new mechanical quantity for soils and its application to elastoplastic constitutive models. Soils Found 24(2):82–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Nakai T, Shahin HM, Kikumoto M, Kyokawa H, Zhang F, Farias MM (2011) A simple and unified one-dimensional model to describe various characteristics of soils. Soils Found 51(6):1129–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sekiguchi H (1977) Rheological characteristics of clays. In: Proceedings of 9th ICSMFE, vol 1, Tokyo, pp 289–292Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Teruo Nakai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hossain Md. Shahin
    • 2
  • Hiroyuki Kyokawa
    • 3
  1. 1.Nagoya OfficeGeo-Research InstituteNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Nagoya Institute of TechnologyNagoyaJapan
  3. 3.IISUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations