Shear Banding in Torsion Shear Tests on Cross-Anisotropic Deposits of Fine Nevada Sand

  • Poul V. LadeEmail author
  • Eugene J. Van Dyck
  • Nina M. Rodriguez
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering book series (SSGG)


A series of torsion shear experiments was performed on large hollow cylinder specimens of Fine Nevada sand with major principal stress directions relative to vertical, α, varying from 0° to 90° and with the intermediate principal stress, σ2, varying from σ3 to σ1 as indicated by b = (σ2 − σ3)/(σ1 − σ3). The Fine Nevada sand was deposited by dry pluviation, thus producing a sand fabric with horizontal bedding planes and cross-anisotropic characteristics. The various stress conditions were achieved by varying the pressures inside and outside the hollow cylinder specimen relative to the shear stress and the vertical deviator stress according to a pre-calculated pattern. All stresses and all strains were determined from careful measurements so that analysis of the soil behavior could be made reliably. The soil behavior was determined for a pattern of combinations of α varying with increments of 22.5° from 0° to 90° and b varying with increments of 0.25 from 0.0 to 1.0. Thus, 25 test locations were established, but many tests were repeated to study the consistency of the results. The friction angles varied considerably with α and b, thus indicating the importance of the intermediate principal stress and the principal stress directions relative to the horizontal bedding planes. The observed shear bands essentially followed the expected directions, but due to the cross-anisotropy, shear bands were also observed in the direction of the major principal stress in regions with high b-values. The strength variation was also influenced by the flexibility of the boundaries in these regions.


Shear Band Principal Stress Void Ratio Intermediate Principal Stress Principal Stress Direction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The research presented here was performed with support from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-0757827. Grateful appreciation is expressed for this support.


  1. Abelev AV, Lade PV (2003) Effects of cross-anisotropy on three dimensional behavior of sand. I: stress-strain behavior and shear banding. J Eng Mech 129(2):160–166Google Scholar
  2. Arthur JRF, Dunstan T, Al-Ani QAJL, Assadi A (1977) Plastic deformation and failure in granular media. Geotechnique 27(1):53–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Lade PV, Rodriguez NM, Van Dyck EJ (2014) Effects of principal stress directions on 3D failure conditions in cross-anisotropic sand. J Geotech Geoenvironmental Eng 140(2):04013001-1–04013001-12Google Scholar
  4. Roscoe KH (1970) The influence of strains in soil mechanics. Geotechnique 20(2):129–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Poul V. Lade
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eugene J. Van Dyck
    • 2
  • Nina M. Rodriguez
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringThe Catholic University of AmericaWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Schnabel Services Inc.Glen AllenUSA
  3. 3.Department of the Navy, Naval Sea Systems Command 05CWashington Navy YardWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations