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Biodegradation of Aromatic Compounds by Alkaliphilic Bacteria

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Abstract

Eubacteria belonging to diverse genera with the ability to degrade toxic aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons along with xenobiotics play an important role in bioremediation. Degradation of aromatic compounds at alkaline pH is significant as alkaliphilic bacteria are more tolerant to toxic compounds and have better bioavailability that can improve the efficiency of biodegradation in control and removal of toxic pollutants. Mangroves are highly reproductive ecosystems which host a wide range of coastal and offshore marine organisms and provide a unique ecological niche for diverse bacterial communities.

In the present study, 141 alkaliphilic bacteria were isolated from mangrove ecosystems of Goa with 20 % being obligate alkaliphiles. 98 % of the cultures were Gram-positive with 54 % of the alkaliphilic cultures belonging to the genus Bacillus, 21 % to Corynebacterium, 7 % each to Micrococcus and Actinomycetes. The only obligate Gram-negative alkaliphile was identified as Flavobacterium on the basis of biochemical and molecular analysis. When screened for degradation of aromatic compounds, all obligate alkaliphiles showed luxuriant growth when supplemented with sodium benzoate, phenol, tyrosine and phenylalanine as a sole source of carbon with few isolates utilising aniline, cresol, resorcinol, quinol and para-chloroaniline. Interestingly, Flavobacterium A-131 exhibited the formation of coloured intermediates when grown in sodium benzoate and tyrosine at alkaline pH. This novel isolate from a mangrove ecosystem, showing growth and metabolism of aromatic compounds at alkaline pH has wide potential in bioremediation.

Keywords

Alkaliphilic bacteria Flavobacterium Sodium benzoate Tyrosine Benzoquinone Degradation Bioremediation 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyPES’s Shri Ravi Sitaram Naik College of Arts and Science, FarmagudiPondaIndia

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