Beyond GDP pp 79-90 | Cite as

Flows of Direct Energy

  • Matthew Kuperus Heun
  • Michael Carbajales-Dale
  • Becky Roselius Haney
Part of the Lecture Notes in Energy book series (LNEN, volume 26)


Accounting for direct energy as it flows through an economy is essential for developing a dynamic picture of its metabolism. In this chapter, we apply the First Law of Thermodynamics to sectors of the economy to describe flows of direct energy from the biosphere, through economies, and ultimately back to the biosphere as waste heat. Direct energy accounting equations are developed through a series of example economies with increasing levels of disaggregation. Finally, direct energy flows for the example of the US auto industry are discussed.


Waste Heat Energy Sector Direct Energy Auto Industry Chemical Potential Energy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew Kuperus Heun
    • 1
  • Michael Carbajales-Dale
    • 2
  • Becky Roselius Haney
    • 3
  1. 1.Engineering DepartmentCalvin CollegeGrand RapidsUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Engineering & Earth Sciences DepartmentClemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  3. 3.Economics DepartmentCalvin CollegeGrand RapidsUSA

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