Stocks and Flows of Materials
The first step in understanding the economic metabolism is to account for the flow of materials through the economy and the exchange of materials with the biosphere. In this chapter, we develop a framework for accounting material flows and accumulation within economies. We begin by considering accounting in everyday life and continue with concepts from thermodynamics, such as system boundaries, control volumes, and the First Law of Thermodynamics, to develop a rigorous accounting framework. The framework is applied first to a one-sector then two-sector model of the economy as we construct a general framework for material accounting. We then apply the framework to the real-world example of the US auto industry.
KeywordsControl Volume Capital Stock Material Flow Economic Sector Capital Good
- 1.Dr. Seuss. The Lorax. New York:Random House; 1971.Google Scholar
- 2.Smith SS, Calbry-Muzyka A, Brandt A, Edwards CF. Economy-wide exergy accounting for energy technologies: integrating life cycle analysis and thermodynamics. Presented at GCEP Research Symposium 2013; 201–3.Google Scholar
- 3.Boulding KE. The economics of the coming spaceship earth. Environ Qual Grow Econ. 1966;2:3–14.Google Scholar
- 4.Graedel TE. Metal stocks in society: scientific synthesis. United Nations Environment Programme; 2010.Google Scholar
- 6.United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World population prospects: the 2012 revision. http://esa.un.org/wpp/.
- 7.Schnaiberg A. Environment: from surplus to scarcity. Oxford:Oxford University Press; 1980.Google Scholar
- 9.Georgescu-Roegen N. The economics of production. Am Econ Rev. 1970;60(2):1–9.Google Scholar
- 10.Daly HE. Sustainable development—definitions, principles, policies. In the future of sustainability. New York:Springer; 2006. pp. 39–53.Google Scholar
- 11.Giampietro M, Mayumi K, Şorman AH. Energy analysis for a sustainable future: multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism. London:Routledge; 2013.Google Scholar
- 14.Lovins AB, Brylawski MM, Cramer DR, Moore TC. Hypercars: materials, manufacturing, and policy implications; 1996.Google Scholar
- 15.Allwood JM, Cullen JM, Carruth MA, Cooper DR, McBrien M, Milford RL, Moynihan MC, Patel ACH. Sustainable materials: with both eyes open. UIT Cambridge Limited; 2012.Google Scholar
- 16.Wiedmann TO, Schandl H, Lenzen M, Moran D, Suh S, West J, Kanemoto K. The material footprint of nations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, p. 201220362; 2013.Google Scholar
- 18.Sraffa P. Production of commodities by means of commodities: prelude to a critique of economic theory; 1960.Google Scholar
- 19.Berry RS, Fels MF. The energy cost of automobiles. Sci Public Aff. 1973;29(10):11–7.Google Scholar
- 20.Sullivan JL, Hu J. Life cycle energy analysis for automobiles. In SAE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS P, pp. 7–20. SOC AUTOMATIVE ENGINEERS INC;1995.Google Scholar
- 21.Stodolsky F, Vyas A, Cuenca R, Gaines L. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminumintensive vehicles. Technical report, Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); 1995.Google Scholar
- 22.Sullivan JL, Ronald L Williams, Yester S, Cobas-Flores E, Chubbs ST, Hentges SG, Pomper SD. Life cycle inventory of a generic US family sedan: overview of results USCAR AMP project. SAE transactions. 1998;107(6):1909–23.Google Scholar
- 24.Sullivan JL, Burnham A, Wang M. Energy-consumption and carbon-emission analysis of vehicle and component manufacturing. Technical report, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); 2010.Google Scholar
- 25.Hawkins TR, Singh B, Majeau-Bettez G, AH Strømman. Comparative environmental life cycle assessment of conventional and electric vehicles. J Ind Ecol. 2012;17(1).Google Scholar
- 26.Bullard CW, Penner PS, Pilati DA. Net energy analysis: handbook for combining process and input-output analysis. Resour energy. 1978;1(3):267–313.Google Scholar
- 27.MacLean HL, Lave LB. Peer reviewed: a life-cycle model of an automobile. Environ Sci Technol. 1998;32(13):322A–30A.Google Scholar
- 29.Hass J, Popescu C. Economy-wide material flows: European countries required more materials between 2000 and 2007. eurostat; 2011.Google Scholar
- 30.Bringezu S, Fischer-Kowalski M, Kleijn R, Palm V, editors. The ConAccount Agenda: The Concerted Action on Material Flow Analysis and its Research & Development Agenda. Wuppertal Institute; 1998.Google Scholar
- 31.Schweimer GW, Levin M. Life cycle inventory for the Golf A4. Research, Environment and Transport; 2000.Google Scholar
- 32.Burnham A, Wang MQ, and Wu Y. Development and applications of GREET 2.7–the transportation vehicle-cyclemodel. Technical report, ANL; 2006.Google Scholar
- 34.Carnegie Mellon University Green Design Institute. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) US 1997 Industry Benchmark model. http://www.eiolca.net. Accessed 1 Jan. 2014.
- 35.International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA). 2010 production statistics. http://www.oica.net/category/production-statistics/2010-statistics/.