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Cosmogenic Radioisotopes for Study of the Genesis and Dynamics of Water

  • V. I. FerronskyEmail author
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Part of the Springer Geophysics book series (SPRINGERGEOPHYS)

Abstract

The Earth’s atmosphere is penetrated by a continuous flux of charged particles, consisting of protons and nuclei of various elements of cosmic origin. Consequently, a great variety of radioisotopes, referred to as cosmogenic, are produced due to the interaction of these particles with the atomic nuclei of elements that constitute the atmosphere. Transported by air masses, radioisotopes are abundant over the whole gaseous sphere of the Earth. Being mixed with atmospheric moisture, a proportion falls over the Earth’s surface, to enter the hydrological cycle as components of surface waters, soil-ground moisture and groundwaters. Another proportion becomes a component of ocean and inland basin waters through exchange at the surface of water reservoirs. Finally, the Earth’s biosphere plays an active role in exchange processes, which are of great importance for some cosmogenic isotopes. Cosmic dust is another source of cosmogenic isotopes, as are meteorites that are continually falling onto the Earth’s surface. Being in cosmic space these meteorites have been subjected to a bombardment of cosmic radiation. Nuclear reactions accompanying the process produce many radioisotopes. The origin and distribution of cosmogenic radioisotopes, global circulation of tritium, radiocarbon and other cosmogenic radionuclides are discussed in this chapter.

Keywords

Cosmic Radiation Water Water Tritium Concentration Cosmic Dust Tritium Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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