Strategy Training and Research Methodology

  • Olga Trendak
Part of the Second Language Learning and Teaching book series (SLLT)


The present chapter will be devoted to the notion of strategy training, often referred to as strategy-based instruction (SBI; Rubin et al. 2007). The author will address contentious issues such as, among others, the intensity of the training, language choice or the selection of strategies to be taught. Emphasis will be placed on the studies into the effectiveness of strategic intervention. Finally, the chapter will present different types of studies into LLS.


Reading Comprehension Learning Strategy Language Skill Strategy Instruction Language Learning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Afflerbach, P. (2000). Verbal reports and protocol analysis. In M. L. Kamil, B. Mosenthal, D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 163–179). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Allwright, D., & Bailey, K. M. (1991). Focus on the language classroom. An introduction to classroom research for language teachers. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. (1983). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. (1985). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, N. J. (2002,%202002). The role of metacognition in second language teaching and learning. ERIC Digest, April 2002, 3–4. Retrieved from
  6. Bialystok, E. (1983). Inferencing: Testing the “hypothesis-testing” hypothesis. In H. Seliger & M. Long (Eds.), Classroom-oriented research in second language acquisition (pp. 104–123). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  7. Bråten, I., & Strømsø, H. I. (2003). A longitudinal think-aloud study of spontaneous strategic processing during the reading of multiple expository texts. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 16, 195–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, J. D., & Rodgers, T. S. (2002). Doing second language research. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, A. L., Campione, J. C., & Day, J. D. (1980). Learning to learn: On training students to learn from texts. Educational Researcher, 10, 14–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, A. L., Bransford, J. D., Ferrara, R., & Campione, J. C. (1983). Learning, remembering, and understanding. In J. N. Flavell & E. M. Markham (Eds.), Carmichael’s manual of child psychology (pp. 77–166). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Burns, A. (1999). Collaborative action research for English language teachers. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  12. Burns, S. (2005). Action research. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (pp. 241–256). Mahwah, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. Carrier, K. A. (2003). Improving high school English language learners’ second language listening through strategy instruction. Bilingual Research Journal, 52, 401–438.Google Scholar
  14. Chamot, A. U. (1999). Reading and writing processes: Learning strategies in immersion classrooms. In M. A. Kassen (Ed.), Language learners of tomorrow: Process and promise (pp. 29–59). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook.Google Scholar
  15. Chamot, A. U. (2004). Issues in language learning strategy research and teaching. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1, 12–25.Google Scholar
  16. Chamot, A. U. (2005). Language learning strategy instruction: Current issues and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chamot, A. U. (2007). Accelerating academic achievement of English language learners: A synthesis of five evaluations of the CALLA Model. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds.), The international handbook of English language learning, Part I (pp. 317–331). Norwell, MA: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chamot, A. U., & Keatley, C. (2003). Learning strategies of adolescent low-literacy Hispanic ESL students. Paper presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  19. Chamot, A. U., & O’Malley, J. M. (1986). A cognitive academic language learning approach: An ESL content-based curriculum. Wheaton, MD: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.Google Scholar
  20. Chamot, A. U., & O’Malley, J. M. (1987). The cognitive academic language learning approach: A bridge to the mainstream. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 227–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chamot, A. U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P., & Robbins, J. (1999). The learning strategies handbook. White Plains: Longman.Google Scholar
  22. Chesterfield, R., & Chesterfield, K. B. (1985). Natural order in children’s use of second language learning strategies. Applied Linguistics, 6, 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen, A. D., & Aphek, E. (1980). Retention of second language vocabulary over time: investigating the role of mnemonic associations. System, 8, 221–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen, A. D., Oxford, R., & Chi, C. (2003). Language strategy use survey. In A. Cohen & S. J. Weaver (Eds.), Styles and strategies-based instruction: A teacher’s guide (pp. 68–74). Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  25. Cohen, A. D., Paige, R. M., Shively, R. L., Emert, H., & Hoff, J. (2005). Maximizing study abroad through language and culture strategies: Research on students, study abroad program professionals, and language instructors. Final Report to the International Research and Studies Program, Office of International Education, DOE, Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  26. Cook, V. (2008). Second language learning and language teaching. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  27. Dansereau, D. F. (1978). The development of learning strategies curriculum. In H. O’Neill (Ed.), Learning strategies (pp. 1–29). San Francisco, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  28. Dansereau, D. F. (1985). Learning strategy research. In J. W. Segal, S. F. Chipman, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills (pp. 209–239). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Derry, S. J., & Murphy, D. A. (1986). Designing systems that train learning ability: From theory to practice. Review of Educational Research, 56, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Droździał-Szelest, K. (1997). Language learning strategies in the process of acquiring a foreign language. Poznań: Motivex.Google Scholar
  33. Droździał-Szelest, K. (2004). Strategie uczenia się języka obcego: badania a rzeczywistość edukacyjna. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), Autonomia w nauce języka obcego (pp. 31–43). Poznań-Kalisz: Wydawnictwo Wydziału Pedagogiczno-Artystycznego w Kaliszu.Google Scholar
  34. Duff, P. (2007). Case study research in applied linguistics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  35. Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  38. Ellis, R., & Sinclair, B. (1989). Learning to learn English: A course in learner training. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  39. Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1987). Verbal reports on thinking. In C. Færch & G. Kasper (Eds.), Introspection in second language research (pp. 24–53). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  40. Erler, L., & Finkbeiner, C. (2007). A review of reading strategies: Focus on the impact of first language. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies (pp. 187–206). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  41. Gao, X. (2004). A critical review of questionnaire use in learner strategy research. Prospect, 1, 3–14.Google Scholar
  42. Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2000). Stimulated recall methodology in second language research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  43. Graham, S., & Harris, K. (2000). Writing development: The role of cognitive, motivational, and social/contextual factors. Educational Psychologist, 35, 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Graham, S., & Macaro, E. (2008). Strategy instruction for lower-intermediate learners of French. Language Learning, 58, 747–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grenfell, M., & Harris, V. (1999). Modern languages and learning strategies: In theory and practice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  46. Grenfell, M., & Harris, V. (2004). Language-learning strategies: A case for cross-curricular collaboration. Language Awareness, 13, 116–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Griffiths, C. (2004). Language learning strategies: Theory and research (Occasional Paper No. 1). School of Foundations Studies, Auckland Institute of Studies at St. Helens, Auckland, New Zealand. Retrieved from
  48. Halbach, A. (2000). Finding out about students’ learning strategies by looking at their diaries: A case study. System, 28, 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hancock, Z. (2002). Heritage Spanish speakers’ language learning strategies. Eric Digest. Retrieved from
  50. Harris, V., Gaspar, A., Jones, B., Ingvadottir, H., Palos, I., Neuburg, R., et al. (2001). Helping learners learn: Exploring strategy instruction in language classrooms across Europe. Graz, Austria: European Centre for Modern Languages.Google Scholar
  51. Hassan, X., Macaro, E., Mason, D., Nye, G., Smith, P., & Vanderplank, E. (2005). Strategy training in language learning—A systematic review of available research. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. Retrieved from
  52. He, A. (2002). Learning English in different linguistic and socio-cultural contexts. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 7, 107–121.Google Scholar
  53. Jones, B. F., Palincsar, A. S., Ogle, D. S., & Carr, E. G. (1987). Strategic teaching and learning: Cognitive instruction in the content areas. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  54. Kellerman, E. (1991). Compensatory strategies in second language research: A critique, a revision and some (non-) implications for the classroom. In R. Phillipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign and second language pedagogy research (pp. 142–161). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  55. Kern, R. (1989). Second language reading strategy instruction: Its effects on comprehension and word inference ability. The Modern Language Journal, 73, 135–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kitajima, R. (1997). Referential strategy training for second language reading comprehension of Japanese texts. Foreign Language Annals, 30, 84–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Koda, K. (2005). Insights into second language: A cross-linguistic approach. Cambridge: CUP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kohler, B. D. (2002). The effects of metacognitive language learning strategy training on lower-achieving second language learners (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Brigham Young University, USA.Google Scholar
  59. Kusiak, M. (2001). The effect of metacognitive strategy training on reading comprehension and metacognitive knowledge. In S. Foster-Cohen, & A. Niżegorodcew (Eds.), EUROSLA Yearbook 86 (pp. 255–274). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.Google Scholar
  60. LoCastro, V. (1994). Learning strategies and learning environments. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 409–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. LoCastro, V. (1995). The author responds. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 172–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Macaro, E. (2001). Learning strategies in foreign and second Language classrooms. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  63. Macaro, E. (2006). Strategies for language learning and for language use: Revising the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal, 90, 320–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Macaro, E., Graham, S., & Vanderplank, R. (2007). A review of listening strategies: Focus on sources of knowledge. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies (pp. 165–185). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  65. McDonough, S. H. (1995). Strategy and skill in learning a foreign language. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  66. McDonough, S. H. (1999). Learner strategies: State of the art article. Language Teaching, 32, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Meskill, C. (1991). Language learning strategies advice: A study on the effects of on-line messaging. System, 19, 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Michońska-Stadnik, A. (2008). Identyfikacja oraz trening strategii dla rozwoju autonomii. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), Autonomia w nauce języka obcego—Co osiągnęliśmy i dokąd zmierzamy (pp. 393–403). Poznań-Kalisz-Konin: Wydawnictwo UAM i PWSZ w Koninie.Google Scholar
  69. Mokhtari, K., & Reichard, C. (2002). Assessing students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 9, 249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2002). Measuring ESL students’ awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Developmental Education, 25, 2–10.Google Scholar
  71. Naiman, N., Fröhlich, M., Stern, H., & Todesco, A. (1978). The good language learner. A report. Research in Education Series 7. The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.Google Scholar
  72. Nunan, D. (1992). Research methods in language learning. New York: CUP.Google Scholar
  73. Nunan, D. (1995). Closing the gap between learning and instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 133–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. O’Malley, J., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. O’Malley, J., Chamot, A., Stewner-Manzanares, G., Kűpper, L., & Russo, R. (1985a). Learning strategies used by beginning and intermediate ESL students. Language Learning, 35, 21–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
  77. Oxford, R. (2008). Hero with a thousand faces: Learner autonomy, learning strategies and learning tactics in independent language learning. In S. Hurd & T. Lewis (Eds.), Language learning strategies in independent settings (pp. 41–63). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  78. Oxford, R. (2011). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  79. Oxford, R., Cho, Y., Leung, S., & Kim, H.-J. (2004). Effect of the presence and difficulty of task on strategy use: An exploratory study. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 42, 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ozeki, N. (2000). Listening strategy instruction for female EFL college students in Japan (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Indiana University of Pennsylvania, USA.Google Scholar
  81. Paige, R. M., Cohen, A. D., & Shively, R. L. (2004). Assessing the impact of a strategies/based curriculum on language and culture learning abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 253–276.Google Scholar
  82. Paris, S. G. (1988). Models and metaphors of learning strategies. In C. E. Weinstein, E. T. Goetz, & P. A. Alexander (Eds.), Learning and study strategies: Issues in assessment, instruction and evaluation (pp. 299–321). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  83. Pawlak, M. (2008a). Advanced learners’ use of strategies for learning grammar: A diary study. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), Investigating English language learning and teaching (pp. 109–125). Kalisz-Poznań: Wydawnictwo UAM.Google Scholar
  84. Pawlak, M. (2009d). Metodologia badań nad strategiami uczenia się. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), Metody badań w językoznawstwie stosowanym (Vol. 32, pp. 65–83). Neofilolog: Czasopismo Polskiego Towarzystwa Neofilologicznego.Google Scholar
  85. Prokop, M. (1989). Learning strategies for second language users. Lewinson, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
  86. Riley, L., & Harsch, K. (1999). Enhancing the learning experience with strategy journals: Supporting the diverse learning styles of ESL/EFL students. In Proceedings of the HERDSA Annual International Conference, 13 July 1999 (pp. 1–18). Retrieved from
  87. Rubin, J. (1975). What the “Good Language Learner” can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rubin, J. (1981). The study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 2, 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rubin, J. (1987). Learner strategies: Theoretical assumptions, research history and typology. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 15–30). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  90. Rubin, J. (1990). Improving foreign language listening comprehension. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on language and linguistics (pp. 309–316). Washington: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Rubin, J. (2003). Diary writing as a process: Simple, useful, powerful. Guidelines, 25, 10–14.Google Scholar
  92. Rubin, J., Chamot, A. U., Harris, V., & Anderson, N. J. (2007). Intervening in the use of strategies. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Learning strategies in foreign and second language classrooms (pp. 117–139). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  93. Seo, K. (2000). Intervening in tertiary students’ strategic listening in Japanese as a foreign language (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Griffith University, Australia.Google Scholar
  94. Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  95. Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 433–466). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  96. Strømsø, H. I., Bråten, I., & Samuelstuen, M. S. (2003). Students’ strategic use of multiple sources during expository reading: A longitudinal think-aloud study. Cognition and Instruction, 21, 113–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Takeuchi, O. (2003). What can we learn from good language learners? A qualitative study in the Japanese foreign language context. System, 31, 313–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tang, H. N., & Moore, D. (1992). Effects of cognitive and metacognitive pre-reading activities on the reading comprehension of ESL learners. Educational Psychology, 12, 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Thompson, I., & Rubin, J. (1996). Can strategy instruction improve listening comprehension? Foreign Language Annals, 29, 331–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ulitsky, H. (2000). Language learner strategies with technology. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 22, 285–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vandergrift, L. (2004). Listening to learn or learning to listen? Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vandergrift, L., Goh, C., Mareschal, C., & Tafaghodtari, M. H. (2006). The Metacognitive Awareness Listening Questionnaire (MALQ): Development and validation. Language Learning, 56, 431–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Vieira, F. (2003). Addressing constraints on autonomy in school contexts: Lessons from working with teachers. In D. Palfreyman & R. C. Smith (Eds.), Learner autonomy across cultures: Language education perspectives (pp. 220–239). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  104. Wenden, A. (1987). Incorporating learner training in the classroom. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 159–168). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  105. White, C. J. (1995). Autonomy and strategy use in distance foreign language learning: Research findings. System, 23, 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. White, C. J. (1997). Effects of mode of study on foreign language learning. Distance Education, 18, 178–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. White, C. J., Schramm, K., & Chamot, A. U. (2007). Research methods in strategy research: Re-examining the toolbox. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies (pp. 93–116). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  108. Zimmerman, B. J. (1990). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview. Educational Psychologist, 25, 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zimmerman, B. J., & Pons, M. M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 614–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olga Trendak
    • 1
  1. 1.Zakład Języka Angielskiego i Językoznawstwa Stosowanego Wydział Filologiczny UŁUniversity of ŁódźŁódźPoland

Personalised recommendations