Advertisement

Investigating Grammar Learning Strategies

  • Olga Trendak
Part of the Second Language Learning and Teaching book series (SLLT)

Abstract

Early research into language learning strategies, for instance by Rubin (1975, 1981) and Stern (1975), focused predominantly on identifying LLS that learners employed. As Ellis (1994) adds, the strategies that were identified focused on the setting, particular interests of the researchers or the type of learners under study. There was little interest in classifying those strategies into more general groups or categories.

Keywords

Learning Strategy Language Learning Compensation Strategy Target Language Learning Style 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anderson, N. J. (2005). L2 strategy research. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook in second language teaching and learning (pp. 757–772). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Bialystok, E. (1978). A theoretical model of second language learning. Language Learning, 28, 69–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Briewin, M., Naidu, B., & Embi, M. A. (2013). Learners of English as foreign language preference for grammar strategies in learning grammar. International Journal of English and Literature, 4, 249–253.Google Scholar
  4. Carton, A. (1971). Inferencing: A process in using and learning language. In P. Pimsleur & T. Quinn (Eds.), The Psychology of second language learning (pp. 45–58). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Carver, D. (1984). Plans, learner strategies, and self-direction in language learning. System, 12, 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chamot, A. U. (1987). The learning strategies of ESL students. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 71–83). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Chesterfield, R., & Chesterfield, K. B. (1985). Natural order in children’s use of second language learning strategies. Applied Linguistics, 6, 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, A. D., & Dörnyei, Z. (2002). Focus on the language learner: Motivation, styles and strategies. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), An introduction to applied linguistics (pp. 170–190). London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, A. D., Oxford, R., & Chi, C. (2003). Language strategy use survey. In A. Cohen & S. J. Weaver (Eds.), Styles and strategies-based instruction: A teacher’s guide (pp. 68–74). Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, A. D., Paige, R. M., Shively, R. L., Emert, H., & Hoff, J. (2005). Maximizing study abroad through language and culture strategies: Research on students, study abroad program professionals, and language instructors. Final Report to the International Research and Studies Program, Office of International Education, DOE, Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, A. D., Pinilla-Herrera, A., Thompson, J. R., & Witzig, L. (2011). Communicating grammatically: Evaluating a learner strategy website for Spanish grammar. CALICO Journal, 29, 145–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeKeyser, R. (2003). Implicit and Explicit Learning. In C. J. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 313–348). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  13. Doughty, C. (2003). Instructed SLA: Constraints, compensation and enhancement. In C. J. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 256–310). Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998a). Issues and terminology. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 1–11). Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  15. Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998b). Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 197–261). Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  16. Droździał-Szelest, K. (1997). Language learning strategies in the process of acquiring a foreign language. Poznań: Motivex.Google Scholar
  17. Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Ellis, R. (2001). Introduction: Investigating form-focused instruction. Language Learning, 51, 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ellis, R. (2006). Current issues in the teaching of grammar: An SLA perspective. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 83–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hayes, N. A., & Broadbent, D. E. (1988). Two modes of learning for interactive tasks. Cognition, 28, 249–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hsiao, T.-Y., & Oxford, R. (2002). Comparing theories of language learning strategies: A confirmatory factor analysis. The Modern Language Journal, 86, 368–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hulstijn, J. H. (2005). Theoretical and empirical issues in the study of implicit and explicit second-language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1979). A functional approach to child language. Cambridge: CUP.Google Scholar
  25. Krashen, S. (1996). The Natural Approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. Northumberland, UK: Bloodaxe.Google Scholar
  26. Long, M. H., & Robinson, P. (1998). Focus on form: Theory, research and practice. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 15–41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Mystkowska-Wiertelak, A. (2008). The use of language strategies for learning grammar. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), Investigating English language learning and teaching (pp. 139–148). Poznań-Kalisz: Wydawnictwo UAM.Google Scholar
  28. Naiman, N., Fröhlich, M., Stern, H., & Todesco, A. (1978). The good language learner. A report. Research in Education Series 7. The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.Google Scholar
  29. O’Malley, J., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. O’Malley, J., Chamot, A. U., Stewner-Manzanares, G., & Kűpper, L. (1985b). Learning strategy applications with students of English as a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 557–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oliphant, K. (1997). Acquisition of grammatical gender in Italian as a foreign language. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i. Retrieved from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/NetWorks?NW07/NW07.pdf.Google Scholar
  32. Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
  33. Oxford, R. (2011). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  34. Oxford, R., Lee, K. R., & Park, G. (2007). L2 grammar strategies: The Second Cinderella and beyond. In A. D. Cohen & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies (pp. 117–140). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  35. Pawlak, M. (2006). The place of form focused instruction in the foreign language classroom. Kalisz-Poznań: Wydawnictwo WPA UAM.Google Scholar
  36. Pawlak, M. (2008a). Advanced learners’ use of strategies for learning grammar: A diary study. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), Investigating English language learning and teaching (pp. 109–125). Kalisz-Poznań: Wydawnictwo UAM.Google Scholar
  37. Pawlak, M. (2009b). Grammar learning strategies and language attainment: Seeking a relationship. Research in Language, 7, 43–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pawlak, M. (2009c). Instructional mode and the use of grammar learning strategies. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), New perspectives on individual difference in language learning and teaching (pp. 267–290). Poznań-Kalisz: Wydawnictwo UAM.Google Scholar
  39. Pawlak, M. (2010a). Strategie uczenia się gramatyki—próba klasyfikacji. In J. Nijakowska (Ed.), Interdyscyplinarne studia nad świadomością i przetwarzaniem językowym (pp. 97–116). Kraków: Tertium.Google Scholar
  40. Pawlak, M. (2011a). Text reconstruction activities and teaching language forms. In J. Majer & Ł. Salski (Eds.), Foreign language writing (pp. 21–40). Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.Google Scholar
  41. Pawlak, M. (2011b). Anxiety as a factor influencing the use of language learning strategies. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), Extending the boundaries of research on second language learning and teaching (pp. 149–165). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pawlak, M. (2011c). Użycie strategii uczenia się gramatyki przez studentów filologii angielskiej. Neofilolog, 37, 39–54.Google Scholar
  43. Pawlak, M. (2011d). Research into language learning strategies: Taking stock and looking ahead. In J. Arabski & A. Wojtaszek (Eds.), Individual learner differences in SLA (pp. 17–37). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  44. Reber, A. (1976). Implicit learning of synthetic languages: The role of instructional set. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 2, 88–94.Google Scholar
  45. Rubin, J. (1975). What the “Good Language Learner” can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rubin, J. (1981). The study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 2, 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second-language learning. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  48. Stephen, S., & Singh, X. (2010). Learning grammar autonomously through metacognitive strategies: An experiment. Journal of NELTA, 15, 146–150.Google Scholar
  49. Stern, H. H. (1974). Directions in language teaching theory and research. In J. Quistgaard, H. Schwarz, & H. Spang-Hanssen (Eds.), Applied linguistics: Problems and solutions (pp. 61–108). Heidelberg: Julius Groos.Google Scholar
  50. Stern, H. H. (1975). What can we learn from the good language learner? The Canadian Modern Language Review, 31, 304–318.Google Scholar
  51. Stern, H. H. (1992). Issues and options in language teaching. Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
  52. Stevens, F. (1984). Strategies for second language acquisition. Montreal: Eden Press.Google Scholar
  53. Tarone, E. (1980). Communication strategies, foreigner talk, and repair in interlanguage. Language Learning, 30, 417–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tarone, E. (1983). Some thoughts on the notion of communication strategy. In C. Faerch & G. Kasper (Eds.), Strategies in interlanguage communication (pp. 61–74). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  55. Thornbury, S. (2001). How to teach grammar. Harlow: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  56. Tilfarlioğlu, F. Y. (2005). An analysis of the relationship between the use of grammar learning Strategies and student achievement at English preparatory classes. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1, 155–169.Google Scholar
  57. Vandergrift, L. (1997). The Cinderella of communication strategies: Receptive strategies in interactive listening. The Modern Language Journal, 81, 494–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vines Gimeno, V. (2002). Grammar learning through strategy training: A classroom study on learning conditionals through metacognitive and cognitive strategy training (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Valencia, Spain.Google Scholar
  59. Wong-Fillmore, L. (1976). The second time around: Cognitive and social strategies in second language acquisition (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Stanford University, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olga Trendak
    • 1
  1. 1.Zakład Języka Angielskiego i Językoznawstwa Stosowanego Wydział Filologiczny UŁUniversity of ŁódźŁódźPoland

Personalised recommendations