Advertisement

Wayfinding Decision Situations: A Conceptual Model and Evaluation

  • Ioannis Giannopoulos
  • Peter Kiefer
  • Martin Raubal
  • Kai-Florian Richter
  • Tyler Thrash
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8728)

Abstract

Humans engage in wayfinding many times a day. We try to find our way in urban environments when walking towards our work places or when visiting a city as tourists. In order to reach the targeted destination, we have to make a series of wayfinding decisions of varying complexity. Previous research has focused on classifying the complexity of these wayfinding decisions, primarily looking at the complexity of the decision point itself (e.g., the number of possible routes or branches). In this paper, we proceed one step further by incorporating the user, instructions, and environmental factors into a model that assesses the complexity of a wayfinding decision. We constructed and evaluated three models using data collected from an outdoor wayfinding study. Our results suggest that additional factors approximate the complexity of a wayfinding decision better than the simple model using only the number of branches as a criterion.

Keywords

Genetic Algorithm Cognitive Load User Model Spatial Ability Decision Point 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allen, G.: Spatial abilities, cognitive maps, and wayfinding: Bases for individual differences in spatial cognition and behavior. In: Golledge, R.G. (ed.) Wayfinding Behavior - Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes, pp. 46–80. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bunch, R.L., Lloyd, R.E.: The cognitive load of geographic information. The Professional Geographer 58(2), 209–220 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clark, A.: Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. MIT Press, Cambridge (1997)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Denis, M.: The Description of Routes: A Cognitive Approach to the Production of Spatial Discourse. Cahiers Psychologie Cognitive 16(4), 409–458 (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dogu, U., Erkip, F.: Spatial factors affecting wayfinding and orientation: A case study in a shopping mall. Environment and Behavior 32(6), 731–755 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frank, A.U.: Different types of “times” in GIS. In: Egenhofer, M.J., Golledge, R.G. (eds.) Spatial and Temporal Reasoning in GIS, pp. 40–62. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gärling, T., Lindberg, E., Mantyla, T.: Orientation in buildings: Effects of familiarity, visual access and orientation aids. Journal of Applied Psychology 68(1), 177–186 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldberg, D.E., Deb, K.: A comparative analysis of selection schemes used in genetic algorithms. Foundations of Genetic Algorithms, pp. 69–93 (1991)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Golledge, R.G.: Spatial behavior: A geographic perspective. Guilford Press (1997)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Golledge, R.G.: Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes. Wayfinding Behavior. Johns Hopkins University Press (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haque, S., Kulik, L., Klippel, A.: Algorithms for reliable navigation and wayfinding. In: Barkowsky, T., Knauff, M., Ligozat, G., Montello, D.R. (eds.) Spatial Cognition 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4387, pp. 308–326. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hegarty, M., Richardson, A.E., Montello, D.R., Lovelace, K., Subbiah, I.: Development of a self-report measure of environmental spatial ability. Intelligence 30(5), 425–447 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., Van de Weijer, J.: Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures. Oxford University Press (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hölscher, C., Meilinger, T., Vrachliotis, G., Brösamle, M., Knauff, M.: Up the down staircase: Wayfinding strategies in multi-level buildings. Journal of Environmental Psychology 26(4), 284–299 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kiefer, P., Giannopoulos, I., Raubal, M.: Where am I? Investigating map matching during self-localization with mobile eye tracking in an urban environment. Transactions in GIS (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Klippel, A.: Wayfinding choremes. In: Kuhn, W., Worboys, M.F., Timpf, S. (eds.) COSIT 2003. LNCS, vol. 2825, pp. 301–315. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuipers, B.J., Levitt, T.S.: Navigation and mapping in large scale space. AI Magazine 9(2), 25 (1988)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lewandowsky, S., Farrell, S.: Computational modeling in cognition: Principles and practice. Sage Publications (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li, C., Longley, P.: A test environment for location-based services applications. Transactions in GIS 10(1), 43–61 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lovelace, K.L., Hegarty, M., Montello, D.R.: Elements of good route directions in familiar and unfamiliar environments. In: Freksa, C., Mark, D.M. (eds.) COSIT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1661, pp. 65–82. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mark, D.M.: Automated route selection for navigation. IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine 1(9), 2–5 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Montello, D.R.: Scale and multiple psychologies of space. In: Campari, I., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1993. LNCS, vol. 716, pp. 312–321. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Montello, D.R.: Navigation. In: Shah, P., Miyake, A. (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Visuospatial Thinking, pp. 257–294. Cambridge University Press (2005)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    O’Neill, M.J.: Evaluation of a conceptual model of architectural legibility. Environment and Behavior 23(3), 259–284 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Raubal, M., Panov, I.: A formal model for mobile map adaptation. In: Location Based Services and TeleCartography II, pp. 11–34. Springer (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Raubal, M., Winter, S.: Enriching wayfinding instructions with local landmarks. In: Egenhofer, M., Mark, D.M. (eds.) GIScience 2002. LNCS, vol. 2478, pp. 243–259. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reichenbacher, T.: Adaptation in mobile and ubiquitous cartography. In: Multimedia Cartography, pp. 383–397. Springer (2007)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schneider, L.F., Taylor, H.A.: How do you get there from here? Mental representations of route descriptions. Applied Cognitive Psychology 13(5), 415–441 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Simon, H.A.: A behavioral model of rational choice. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 99–118 (1955)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weiser, P., Frank, A.U.: Cognitive transactions–a communication model. In: Tenbrink, T., Stell, J., Galton, A., Wood, Z. (eds.) COSIT 2013. LNCS, vol. 8116, pp. 129–148. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weisman, J.: Evaluating architectural legibility way-finding in the built environment. Environment and Behavior 13(2), 189–204 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Werner, S., Long, P.: Cognition meets Le Corbusier - cognitive principles of architectural design. In: Freksa, C., Brauer, W., Habel, C., Wender, K.F. (eds.) Spatial Cognition III. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2685, pp. 112–126. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Winter, S.: Route adaptive selection of salient features. In: Kuhn, W., Worboys, M.F., Timpf, S. (eds.) COSIT 2003. LNCS, vol. 2825, pp. 349–361. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wolbers, T., Hegarty, M.: What determines our navigational abilities? Trends in cognitive sciences 14(3), 138–146 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioannis Giannopoulos
    • 1
  • Peter Kiefer
    • 1
  • Martin Raubal
    • 1
  • Kai-Florian Richter
    • 2
  • Tyler Thrash
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Cartography and GeoinformationETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Humanities, Social and Political Science, Cognitive ScienceETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations