Floral Diversity

  • Gautam Kumar Das
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 11)


Sunderbans forest encompasses a wide variety of halophytic mangrove species, salt marshes and sea shrubs. It constitutes a unique Biosphere Reserve in the coastal Bay of Bengal. The pattern of mangrove vegetation depends on the type of geomorphic set-up. Point bars and mid channel bars of the rivers of Sunderbans primarily support mangrove vegetation, whereas marsh vegetation is confined to upper intertidal to supratidal zones of levees and river flood plain. Species diversity of mangrove depend on the preferred salinity of respective species, availability of nutrients, organic carbon, soil texture, water retention capacity of soil etc. In general, ExcoecariaAvicenniaPhoenix combination is found to occur in the upper stretch of Sunderbans rivers, while AvicenniaAegialitisRhizophora and AvicenniaCeriopsRhizophora combinations are seen in the middle and lowest stretch of the rivers respectively. In spite of this immense contribution as protector of shorelines as well as agricultural land, it is a matter of serious concern that local populace often do not realize the importance of mangrove forest and exploit it in an unplanned way. To save this unique Biosphere Reserve which exhibit various generic and species diversity, massive awareness programme is most essential.


Sunderbans Mangroves Species diversity Salinity Salt marsh Afforestation Deforestation 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gautam Kumar Das
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

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