Leadership Theories and Styles

  • Melina R. KibbeEmail author
Part of the Success in Academic Surgery book series (SIAS)


Leadership theories and styles have evolved over time. In order to become an effective leader, one must understand the core leadership theories and the styles that emerged from them, how they evolved, and how to implement different styles of leadership depending on the environment, situation, or need of the leader and the team members. This chapter will provide a description of core leadership theories and the leadership styles that have emerged from these theories. The leadership styles commonly adopted for surgical leadership will also be discussed.


Emotional Intelligence Transformational Leadership Leadership Style Effective Leader Leadership Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Prive T. Top 10 qualities that make a great leader. 2012. Forbes Accessed 25 June 2014.
  2. 2.
    Lewin K, Lippitt R, White RK. Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology. 1939;10:271–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hersey P, Blanchard KH, Johnson DE. Management of organizational behavior: utilizing human resources. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall; 1996. p. 188–223.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pierce JL, Dunham RB. Managing. Chicago: Scott Foresman & Co; 1990.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    French Jr JRP, Raven BH. The bases of social power. In: Cartwright D, editor. Studies in social power. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research; 1959. p. 150–67.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goleman D. Leadership that gets results. Harv Bus Rev. 2000;78(2):78–90.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xirasagar S, Samuels ME, Stoskopf CH. Physician leadership styles and effectiveness: an empirical study. Medical Care Research and Review. 2005;62(6):720–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hana J, Kirkhaug R. Physicians’ leadership styles in rural primary medical care: how are they perceived by staff? Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care. 2014;32:4–10.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xirasagar S, Samuels ME, Curtin TF. Management training of physician executives, their leadership style, and care management performance: an empirical study. 2006. AJMC. Accessed 16 June 2014.
  10. 10.
    Broome ME. Self-reported leadership styles of deans of baccalaureate and higher degree nursing programs in the United States. J Prof Nurs. 2013;29(6):323–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations