Women as Leaders in Surgery

  • Diana FarmerEmail author
  • Connor Long
  • Julie Ann Freischlag
Part of the Success in Academic Surgery book series (SIAS)


Women have made serious advances in the fields of medicine and surgery in the recent past, but 160 years after Elizabeth Blackwell’s graduation from medical school, society is still far from gender parity. Although women now constitute roughly 50 % of American medical students and enter academic medicine as faculty in numbers equal to their male colleagues, women are grossly underrepresented in positions of power and leadership, especially in surgery. In this chapter, the authors provide the data regarding leadership by women in surgery, discuss gender roles, sexism, and mentorship and how they impact the ability of women to lead, and provide their own personal leadership journeys.


Sexual Harassment Stem Cell Therapy Gender Discrimination Traditional Gender Role Career Advancement 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diana Farmer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Connor Long
    • 2
  • Julie Ann Freischlag
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUC Davis School of Medicine, UC Davis Children’s Hospital, UC Davis Health SystemSacramentoUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUC Davis School of MedicineSacramentoUSA
  3. 3.Human Health ServicesUC Davis School of Medicine, UC Davis Health SystemSacramentoUSA

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