Advertisement

How Culture Influences Leadership Styles

  • Marco G. PattiEmail author
  • Daniel Albo
Part of the Success in Academic Surgery book series (SIAS)

Abstract

In 1994, for the first time in the history of the American College of Surgeons (ACS), an individual, Dr. Alexander J. Walt, who was not born in the United States (US) and had not trained in the US, was elected President. In 2013, another foreign medical graduate (FMG), Carlos A. Pellegrini, gave his Presidential address in front of the ACS as the 94th President. Even though Dr. Walt and Dr. Pellegrini are examples that are difficult to follow, their stories have a lot in common and show that foreign born individuals do serve in leadership roles in surgery. This chapter discusses how the culture from which an individual is from effects leadership styles, and how surgical leadership may be different among different cultures. This chapter also describes the career path of two general surgeons, both FMG, but from different continents, and how their culture has influenced their own leadership styles.

Keywords

Leadership Culture Foreign Medical Graduate Dimensions of culture Cultural clusters Integration Assimilation 

References

  1. 1.
    Walt AJ. The Uniqueness of American surgical education. Bull Am Coll Surg. 1994;79:9–20.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Residency Matching Program. Match statistics 2007. www.nrmp.org/res_match/data.
  3. 3.
    Cerio DR, Loghmanee CF. International medical graduates in American surgery: past, present, future. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2007;92:39–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McMahon GT. Coming to America – international medical graduates in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2435–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lamb MN, Fraley DR. The Mayo Clinic-Rochester experience with IMGs as general surgery trainees. Surgery. 2006;140:351–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Whelan GP. Coming to America: the integration of International Medical Graduates into the American Medical Culture. Acad Med. 2005;81:176–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    Patel VM, Warren O, Humphris P, Ahmed K, Ashrafian H, Rao C, Athanasiou T, Darzi A. What does leadership in surgery entail? ANZ J Surg. 2010;80:876–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Allport FH, Allport GW. Personality traits: their classification and measurement. J Abnorm Soc Psychol. 1921;16:1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blake R, Mouton J. The managerial grid: the key to leadership excellence. Houston: Gulf Publishing; 1964.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levine RB, Lin F, Kern DE, Wright SM, Carrese J. Stories from early-career women physicians who have left academic medicine: a qualitative study at a single institution. Acad Med. 2011;86:752–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Varkey P, Jatoi A, Williams A, Mayer A, Ko M, Files J, Blair J, Hayes S. The positive impact of a facilitated peer mentoring program on academic skills of women faculty. BMC Med Educ. 2012;12:14.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Newman LA, Pollock RE, Johnson-Thompson MC. Increasing the pool of academically oriented African-American medical and surgical oncologists. Cancer. 2003;97 Suppl 1:329–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singletary SE. Mentoring surgeons for the 21st century. Ann Surg Oncol. 2005;12:848–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hofstede G. Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2001.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    House RJ, Hanges PJ, Javidan M, Dorfman PW, Gupta V, Associates. Culture, leadership and organizations: the GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2004.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Greene LC, Worrell SG, Patti MG, DeMeester TR. The University of Chicago contribution to the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. A tribute to David B. Skinner 1935–2003. Ann Surg. 2004. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0698.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Chicago Pritzker School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations