Pain Sensing in Animals
This chapter presents a new pain sensing system in animals based on the use of stepping motor for applying force and flexi-force sensor for measuring the applied force. The purpose of the system is to apply a force to the sheep’s leg via a probe. The force should slowly be increased by moving the probe into the leg of the sheep. When the animal reacts to the pain the user should be able to retract the probe and record the force which was applied and time the force was applied for. The system was intended to replace an old device which used pneumatics to apply a pressure to the animal. This device had several problems including leaks, inaccuracies, and safety issues. The system is intended for research into pain sensitivity in sheep. The research aims to measure the mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) in sheep. The MNT is defined as the minimum pressure that induces a pain response. This system could be used to investigate the effectiveness of pain control drugs for sheep. It could also be developed for research on other animals. For similar sized animals no modifications would be necessary. This chapter covers a background into the need for the system and other aspects involved with the development of this system. It contains a description of all technical aspects of the system and how the design was reached. It covers calibration and testing of the system and results and conclusions developed from these.
KeywordsPain sensing flexi-force stepping motor force measurement
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Bachelor of Science, Animal Science (2010), http://www.massey.ac.nz/massey/study/programme-course-and-paper-search/programme.cfm?prog_id=92411&major_code=2262
- 2.Whay, H.R., Waterman, A.E., Webster, A.J.F.: Associations between locomotion, claw lesions and nociceptive threshold in dairy heifers during the peri-partum period. Veterinary Journal 154(2) (1997)Google Scholar
- 3.Dixon, M.J., Taylor, P.M., Steagall, P.V.M., Brondani, Luna, S.P.L.: Development of a pressure nociceptive threshold testing device for evaluation of analgesics in cats. Science Direct 82(1) (2007)Google Scholar
- 4.Usefulness of the scales measuring pain, disability and quality of life,http://www.webdelaespalda.org/english/cientifica/instrumentos/utilidad.asp
- 5.Chambers, J.P.: Development of equipment to measure nociceptive thresholds in large animals. In: The Influence of Chronic Pain on the Action of Analgesic Drugs. PhD thesis, ch. 2. Bristol University (1992)Google Scholar
- 6.FlexiForce®: Standard & Custom OEM Force Sensing Solutions. tekscan.com, http://www.tekscan.com/flexiforce/flexiforce.html
- 7.Alkhumaisi, K., Al-Bahadly, I.H., Mukhopadhyay, S.C., Beausoleil, N., Johnson, C.: A smart sensing system to apply measured controlled force to animals to study pain sensitivity. In: 4th Int Conference on Sensing Technology, Italy, pp. 163–168 (2010)Google Scholar
- 8.Chew, M.T., Sen Gupta, G.: Embedded Programming with Field-Programmable Mixed-Signal Micro Controllers (2005)Google Scholar
- 9.Al-Bahadly, I.H., Murphy, P., Alkhumaisi, K.: Forced based pain sensing in animals using stepping motor. In: International Conference on Sensing Technology (ICST 2013), New Zealand, pp. 978–971 (December 2013) ISBN 978-1-4673-5221-5Google Scholar
- 10.Lakshmanan, V., Yang, T.H., Reuben, R.L., Hammer, J., Else, R.W.: Assessing the quality of biological tissues using structure-property relationships: Macro-scale tests on engineered phantoms. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 133 (2008)Google Scholar