High Pressure Phase Equilibria Measurement for Mixtures Comprising Food Substances

  • José M. S. FonsecaEmail author
  • Ralf Dohrn
  • Stephanie Peper
Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)


In the processing of food materials, separation processes are frequently performed at high pressures, namely in the extraction of aromas, flavours, or oils through supercritical technology, in the fractionation of liquids, in chromatographic separations, etc. The design and optimization of such processes rely on the phase equilibria of the systems in question. A wide variety of methods and techniques is available for high-pressure phase equilibria determinations. A detailed knowledge and understanding of the different methods is essential for the appropriate choice of the most suitable method for a certain determination. In the present chapter, the various methods and techniques available for the study of phase equilibria at high pressures are presented, together with considerations on the main characteristics, advantages, challenges and common error sources for each of the methods. Examples of studies related to food processing are provided, and the trends concerning the most commonly used methods for application to the food industry are analysed.


Phase equilibria High pressure measurements Analytical methods Synthetic methods 


  1. Abbott AP, Corr S, Durling NE et al (2002) Solubility of substituted aromatic hydrocarbons in supercritical difluoromethane. J Chem Eng Data 47:900–905Google Scholar
  2. Alessi P, Kikic I, Cortesi A et al (2003) Polydimethylsiloxanes in supercritical solvent impregnation (SSI) of polymers. J Supercrit Fluids 27:309–315Google Scholar
  3. Anthony JL, Maginn EJ, Brennecke JF (2002) Solubilities and thermodynamic properties of gases in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate. J Phys Chem B 106:7315–7320Google Scholar
  4. Bamberger A, Sieder G, Maurer G (2000) High-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibrium in binary mixtures of (carbon dioxide + water or acetic acid) at temperatures from 313 to 353 K. J Supercrit Fluids 17:97–110Google Scholar
  5. Bayindirli A, Alpas H, Bozoglu F et al (2006) Efficiency of high pressure treatment on inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms and enzymes in apple, orange, apricot and sour cherry juices. Food Control 17:52–58Google Scholar
  6. Bermejo DV, Luna P, Manic MS et al (2013) Extraction of caffeine from natural matter using a bio-renewable agrochemical solvent. Food Bioprod Process 91:303–309Google Scholar
  7. Berna A, Chafer A, Montón JB et al (2001) High-pressure solubility data of system ethanol (1) + catechin (2) + CO2 (3). J Supercrit Fluids 20:157–162Google Scholar
  8. Blanchard LA, Gu Z, Brennecke JF (2001) High-pressure phase behavior of ionic liquid/CO2 systems. J Phys Chem B 105:2437–2444Google Scholar
  9. Bobbo S, Fedele L, Scattolini M et al (2007) Solubility of carbon dioxide in 2-methylbutyric, 2-methylvaleric and 2-methylhexanoic ester oils. Fluid Phase Equilib 256:81–85Google Scholar
  10. Boudouris D, Prinos J, Bridakis M et al (2001) Measurement of HCFC-22 and HFC-152a sorption by polymers using a quartz crystal microbalance. Ind Eng Chem Res 40:604–611Google Scholar
  11. Brass M, Pritzel T, Schulte E et al (2000) Measurements of vapor-liquid equilibria in the systems NH3-H2O-NaOH and NH3-H2O-KOH at temperatures of 303 and 318 K and pressures 0.1 MPa < p < 1.3 MPa. Int J Thermophys 21:883–898Google Scholar
  12. Briones JA, Mullins JC, Thies MC (1994) Liquid-liquid equilibria for the oleic acid-β-sitosterol-water system at elevated temperatures and pressures. Ind Eng Chem Res 33:151–156Google Scholar
  13. Brunner G (2005) Supercritical fluids: technology and application to food processing. J Food Eng 67:21–33Google Scholar
  14. Brunner G, Teich J, Dohrn R (1994) Phase equilibria in systems containing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and hydrocarbons. Fluid Phase Equilib 100:253–268Google Scholar
  15. Buckow R, Weiss U, Knorr D (2009) Inactivation kinetics of apple polyphenol oxidase in different pressure-temperature domains. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 10:441–448Google Scholar
  16. Byun HS, McHugh MA (2000) Impact of “free” monomer concentration on the phase behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide-polymer mixtures. Ind Eng Chem Res 39:4658–4662Google Scholar
  17. Byun HS, Shin JS (2003) Bubble-point measurement for CO2 + vinyl acetate and CO2 + vinyl acrylate systems at high pressures. J Chem Eng Data 48:97–101Google Scholar
  18. Cano MP, Hernandez A, De Ancos B (1997) High pressure and temperature effects on enzyme inactivation in strawberry and orange products. J Food Sci 62:85–88Google Scholar
  19. Cháfer A, Fornari T, Stateva RP et al (2009) Trans-cinnamic acid solubility enhancement in the presence of ethanol as a supercritical CO2 cosolvent. J Chem Eng Data 54:2263–2268Google Scholar
  20. Charoensombut-amon T, Martin RJ, Kobayashi R (1986) Application of a generalized multiproperty apparatus to measure phase equilibrium and vapor phase densities of supercritical carbon dioxide in n-hexadecane systems up to 26 MPa. Fluid Phase Equilib 31:89–104Google Scholar
  21. Chen Y, Zhang S, Yuan X et al (2006) Solubility of CO2 in imidazolium-based tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids. Thermochim Acta 441:42–44Google Scholar
  22. Chen PY, Chen WH, Lai SM et al (2011) Solubility of Jatropha and Aquilaria oils in supercritical carbon dioxide at elevated pressures. J Supercrit Fluids 55:893–897Google Scholar
  23. Cheng C-H, Chen YP (2005) Vapor-liquid equilibria of carbon dioxide with isopropyl acetate, diethyl carbonate and ethyl butyrate at elevated pressures. Fluid Phase Equilib 234:77–83Google Scholar
  24. Cheng KW, Kuo SJ, Tang M et al (2000) Vapor-liquid equilibria at elevated pressures of binary mixtures of carbon dioxide with methyl salicylate, eugenol, and diethyl phthalate. J Supercrit Fluids 18:87–99Google Scholar
  25. Cheng KW, Tang M, Chen YP (2001) Vapor-liquid equilibria of carbon dioxide with diethyl oxalate, ethyl laurate, and dibutyl phthalate binary mixtures at elevated pressures. Fluid Phase Equilib 181:1–16Google Scholar
  26. Cheng KW, Tang M, Chen YP (2002) Solubilities of benzoin, propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate and mandelic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide. Fluid Phase Equilib 201:79–96Google Scholar
  27. Chester TL (2004) Determination of pressure-temperature coordinates of liquid-vapor critical loci by supercritical fluid flow injection analysis. J Chromatogr A 1037:393–403Google Scholar
  28. Christov M, Dohrn R (2002) High-pressure fluid phase equilibria: experimental methods and systems investigated (1994–1999). Fluid Phase Equilib 202:153–218Google Scholar
  29. Chuang MH, Johannsen M (2011) Solubilities and adsorption equilibria of β-Carotene in supercritical and near-critical fluids. J Chem Eng Data 56:1770–1777Google Scholar
  30. Cohen-Adad MT (2001) Phase diagrams at high temperature and high pressure. Determination and consequent developments. Pure Appl Chem 5:771–783Google Scholar
  31. Cotugno S, Di Maio E, Ciardiello C et al (2003) Sorption thermodynamics and mutual diffusivity of carbon dioxide in molten polycaprolactone. Ind Eng Chem Res 42:4398–4405Google Scholar
  32. Cruz Francisco JD, Topgaard D, Sivik B et al (2004) Phase behavior of the system lecithin-water: the effects of addition of the hydrocarbon 1,8-cineole and supercritical carbon dioxide. J Supercrit Fluids 31:255–262Google Scholar
  33. D’souza R, Patrick JR, Teja AS (1988) High pressure phase equilibria in the carbon dioxide-n-hexadecane and carbon dioxide-water systems. Can J Chem Eng 66:319–323Google Scholar
  34. Damar S, Murat OB (2006) Review of dense phase CO2 technology: microbial and enzyme inactivation, and effects on food quality. J Food Sci 71:R1–R11Google Scholar
  35. Daridon JL, Pauly J, Milhet M (2002) High pressure solid-liquid phase equilibria in synthetic waxes. Phys Chem Chem Phys 4:4458–4461Google Scholar
  36. Davarnejad R, Kassim KM, Ahmad Z et al (2009) Solubility of β-Carotene from crude palm oil in high-temperature and high-pressure carbon dioxide. J Chem Eng Data 54:2200–2207Google Scholar
  37. Dell’Era C, Uusi-Kyyny P, Pokki JP et al (2010) Solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of diisopropanolamine and methyldiethanolamine. Fluid Phase Equilib 293:101–109Google Scholar
  38. Diefenbacher A, Türk M (2001) Critical properties (p c, T c, and ρ c) and phase equilibria of binary mixtures of CO2, CHF3, CH2F2, and SF6. Fluid Phase Equilib 182:121–131Google Scholar
  39. Dohrn R, Brunner G (1995) High-pressure fluid-phase equilibria: experimental methods and systems investigated (1988–1993). Fluid Phase Equilib 106:213–282Google Scholar
  40. Dohrn R, Peper S, Fonseca JMS (2010) High-pressure fluid-phase equilibria: experimental methods and systems investigated (2000–2004). Fluid Phase Equilib 288:1–54Google Scholar
  41. Dohrn R, Fonseca JMS, Peper S (2012) Experimental methods for phase equilibria at high pressures. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 3:343–367Google Scholar
  42. Dong X, Erkey C, Dai HJ et al (2002) Phase behavior and micelle size of an aqueous microdispersion in supercritical CO2 with a novel surfactant. Ind Eng Chem Res 41:1038–1042Google Scholar
  43. Draucker LC, Hallett JP, Bush D et al (2006) Vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of perfluorohexane + CO2 + methanol, +toluene, and + acetone at 313 K. Fluid Phase Equilib 241:20–24Google Scholar
  44. Drozd-Rzoska A, Rzoska SJ, Imre AR (2004) Liquid-liquid phase equilibria in nitrobenzene-hexane critical mixture under negative pressure. Phys Chem Chem Phys 6:2291–2294Google Scholar
  45. Eustaquio-Rincón R, Trejo A (2001) Solubility of n-octadecane in supercritical carbon dioxide at 310, 313, 333, and 353 K, in the range 10–20 MPa. Fluid Phase Equilib 185:231–239Google Scholar
  46. Fedele L, Bobbo S, Camporese R et al (2007) Isothermal vapour-liquid equilibrium measurements and correlation for the pentafluoroethane + cyclopropane and the cyclopropane + 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane binary systems. Fluid Phase Equilib 251:41–46Google Scholar
  47. Ferri A, Banchero M, Manna L et al (2004) An experimental technique for measuring high solubilities of dyes in supercritical carbon dioxide. J Supercrit Fluids 30:41–49Google Scholar
  48. Folas GK, Berg OJ, Solbraa E et al (2007a) High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of systems containing ethylene glycol, water and methane: experimental measurements and modeling. Fluid Phase Equilib 251:52–58Google Scholar
  49. Folas GK, Froyna EW, Lovland J et al (2007b) Data and prediction of water content of high pressure nitrogen, methane and natural gas. Fluid Phase Equilib 252:162–174Google Scholar
  50. Fonseca JMS (2010) Design, development and testing of new experimental equipment for the measurement of multiphase equilibrium. PhD Dissertation, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. LyngbyGoogle Scholar
  51. Fonseca JMS, von Solms N (2012) Development and testing of a new apparatus for the measurement of high-pressure low-temperature phase equilibria. Fluid Phase Equilib 329:55–62Google Scholar
  52. Fonseca JMS, von Solms N (2014) Synthetic methods in phase equilibria: a new apparatus and error analysis of the method. J Supercrit Fluids 86:49–56Google Scholar
  53. Fonseca J, Simoes PC, Nunes da Ponte MN (2003) An apparatus for high-pressure VLE measurements using a static mixer. Results for (CO2 + limonene + citral) and (CO2 + limonene + linalool). J Supercrit Fluids 25:7–17Google Scholar
  54. Fonseca JMS, Dohrn R, Peper S (2011a) High-pressure fluid-phase equilibria: experimental methods and systems investigated (2005−2008). Fluid Phase Equilib 300:1–69Google Scholar
  55. Fonseca JMS, Pfohl O, Dohrn R (2011b) Development and test of a new Knudsen effusion apparatus for the measurement of low vapour pressures. J Chem Thermodyn 43:1942–1949Google Scholar
  56. Fonseca JMS, Dohrn R, Wolf A et al (2012) The solubility of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide in polymers derived from carbon dioxide. Fluid Phase Equilib 318:83–88Google Scholar
  57. Fornari RE, Alessi P, Kikic I (1990) High pressure fluid phase equilibria: experimental methods and systems investigated (1978–1987). Fluid Phase Equilib 57:1–33Google Scholar
  58. Fornari T, Vicente G, Vázquez E et al (2012) Isolation of essential oil from different plants and herbs by supercritical fluid extraction. J Chromatogr A 1250:34–48Google Scholar
  59. Franceschi E, Grings MB, Frizzo CD et al (2004) Phase behavior of lemon and bergamot peel oils in supercritical CO2. Fluid Phase Equilib 226:1–8Google Scholar
  60. Freitag J, Diez MTS, Tuma D et al (2004) High-pressure multiphase behavior of the ternary systems (ethene + water + 1-propanol) and (ethene + water + 2-propanol): part I: experimental investigation. J Supercrit Fluids 32:1–13Google Scholar
  61. Fu D, Sun X, Qiu Y et al (2007) High-pressure phase behavior of the ternary system CO2 + ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] + naphthalene. Fluid Phase Equilib 251:114–120Google Scholar
  62. Funazukuri T, Kong CY, Murooka N et al (2000) Measurements of binary diffusion coefficients and partition ratios for acetone, phenol, alpha-tocopherol, and beta-carotene in supercritical carbon dioxide with a poly(ethylene glycol)-coated capillary column. Ind Eng Chem Res 39:4462–4469Google Scholar
  63. Galia A, Argentino A, Scialdone O et al (2002) A new simple static method for the determination of solubilities of condensed compounds in supercritical fluids. J Supercrit Fluids 24:7–17Google Scholar
  64. Gervais F (1998) Handbook of optical constants of solids, vol 2. Academic, San Diego, pp 761–775Google Scholar
  65. Goodarznia I, Esmaeilzadeh F (2002) Solubility of an anthracene, phenanthrene, and carbazole mixture in supercritical carbon dioxide. J Chem Eng Data 47:333–338Google Scholar
  66. Gozalpour F, Danesh A, Todd AC et al (2003) Vapour−liquid equilibrium compositional data for a model fluid at elevated temperatures and pressures. Fluid Phase Equilib 208:303–313Google Scholar
  67. Guigard SE, Hayward GL, Zytner RG et al (2001) Measurement of solubilities in supercritical fluids using a piezoelectric quartz crystal. Fluid Phase Equilib 187–188:233–246Google Scholar
  68. Guilbot P, Valtz A, Legendre H et al (2000) Rapid on-line sampler-injector: a reliable tool for HT-HP sampling and on-line GC analysis. Analusis 28:426–431Google Scholar
  69. Haines AH, Steytler DC, Rivett C (2008) Solubility dependence of peracylated d-glucopyranoses in supercritical carbon dioxide on the structure of their acyl moieties. J Supercrit Fluids 44:21–24Google Scholar
  70. Harris RA, Wilken M, Fischer K et al (2007) High pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements of carbon dioxide with naphthalene and benzoic acid. Fluid Phase Equilib 260:60–64Google Scholar
  71. Hashimoto S, Murayama S, Sugahara T et al (2006) Thermodynamic and Raman spectroscopic studies on H2 + tetrahydrofuran + water and H2 + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide + water mixtures containing gas hydrates. Chem Eng Sci 61:7884–7888Google Scholar
  72. Hegel P, Mabe G, Zabaloy M et al (2009) Liquid + liquid + supercritical fluid equilibria for systems containing carbon dioxide, propane, and triglycerides. J Chem Eng Data 54:2085–2089Google Scholar
  73. Hendriks E, Kontogeorgis G, Dohrn R et al (2010) Industrial requirements for thermodynamics and transport properties. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:11131–11141Google Scholar
  74. Hernández EJ, Mabe GD, Señoráns FJ et al (2008) High-pressure phase equilibria of the pseudoternary mixture sunflower oil + ethanol + carbon dioxide. J Chem Eng Data 53:2632–2636Google Scholar
  75. Hernández EJ, Señoráns FJ, Reglero G et al (2010) High-pressure phase equilibria of squalene + carbon dioxide: new data and thermodynamic modeling. J Chem Eng Data 55:3606–3611Google Scholar
  76. Hölscher IF, Spee M, Schneider GM (1989) Fluid-phase equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures of CO2 with hexadecane, 1-dodecanol, 1-hexadecanol and 2-ethoxy-ethanol at 333.2 and 393.2 K and at pressures up to 33 MPa. Fluid Phase Equilib 49:103–113Google Scholar
  77. Hurst WS, Hodes MS, Bowers WJ et al (2002) Optical flow cell and apparatus for solubility, salt deposition and Raman spectroscopic studies in aqueous solutions near the water critical point. J Supercrit Fluids 22:157–166Google Scholar
  78. Jager MD, Sloan ED Jr (2001) The effect of pressure on methane hydration in pure water and sodium chloride solutions. Fluid Phase Equilib 185:89–99Google Scholar
  79. Jenab E, Temelli F (2011) Viscosity measurement and modeling of canola oil and its blend with canola stearin in equilibrium with high pressure carbon dioxide. J Supercrit Fluids 58:7–14Google Scholar
  80. Jenab E, Temelli F (2012) Density and volumetric expansion of carbon dioxide-expanded canola oil and its blend with fully-hydrogenated canola oil. J Supercrit Fluids 70:57–65Google Scholar
  81. Jou FY, Mather A (2007) Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in [bmim][PF6]. Int J Thermophys 28:490–495Google Scholar
  82. Kato M, Kodama D, Sato M et al (2006) Volumetric behavior and saturated pressure for carbon dioxide + ethyl acetate at a temperature of 313.15 K. J Chem Eng Data 51:1031–1034Google Scholar
  83. Kato M, Sugiyama K, Sato M et al (2007) Volumetric property for carbon dioxide + methyl acetate system at 313.15 K. Fluid Phase Equilib 257:207–211Google Scholar
  84. Kim CN, Lee EH, Park YM et al (2000) Vapor-liquid equilibria for the 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a) + 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) system. Int J Thermophys 21:871–881Google Scholar
  85. King MB, Kassim K, Bott TR et al (1984) Prediction of mutual solubilities of heavy components with super−critical and slightly subcritical solvents: the role of equations of state and some applications of a simple expanded lattice model at subcritical temperatures. Berich Bunsen Gesell 88:812–820Google Scholar
  86. Kleinrahm R, Wagner W (1986) Measurement and correlation of the equilibrium liquid and vapour densities and the vapour pressure along the coexistence curve of methane. J Chem Thermodyn 18:739–760Google Scholar
  87. Knez Z, Skerget M, Uzunalic AP (2007) Phase equilibria of vanillins in compressed gases. J Supercrit Fluids 43:237–248Google Scholar
  88. Knez Z, Ilic L, Škerget M et al (2010) High-pressure solubility data for palm oil + SF6 and coconut oil + SF6 systems. J Chem Eng Data 55:5829–5833Google Scholar
  89. Kodama D, Miyazaki J, Kato M et al (2004) High pressure phase equilibrium for ethylene + 1-propanol system at 283.65 K. Fluid Phase Equilib 219:19–23Google Scholar
  90. Kodama D, Seki T, Kato M (2007) High-pressure phase equilibrium for ethylene + 1-butanol at 283.65 K and 290.80 K. Fluid Phase Equilib 261:99–103Google Scholar
  91. Kodama D, Sugiyama K, Ono T et al (2008) Volumetric properties of carbon dioxide + isopropyl ethanoate mixtures at 308.15 and 313.15 K. J Supercrit Fluids 47:128–134Google Scholar
  92. Kordikowski A, Siddiqi M, Palakodaty S (2002) Phase equilibria for the CO2 + methanol + sulfathiazole system at high pressure. Fluid Phase Equilib 194–197:905–917Google Scholar
  93. Krüger KM, Pfohl O, Dohrn R et al (2006) Phase equilibria and diffusion coefficients in the poly(dimethylsiloxane) + n-pentane system. Fluid Phase Equilib 241:138–146Google Scholar
  94. Laursen T, Rasmussen P, Andersen SI (2002) VLE and VLLE measurements of dimethyl ether containing systems. J Chem Eng Data 47:198–202Google Scholar
  95. Lerche BM (2012) CO2 capture from flue gas using amino acid salt solutions. PhD Dissertation, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. LyngbyGoogle Scholar
  96. Link DD, Ladner EP, Elsen HA et al (2003) Formation and dissociation studies for optimizing the uptake of methane by methane hydrates. Fluid Phase Equilib 211:1–10Google Scholar
  97. Macdonald L, Schaschke CJ (2000) Combined effect of high pressure, temperature and holding time on polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activity in banana (Musaacuminata). J Sci Food Agr 80:719–724Google Scholar
  98. Mahmood S, Zhao Q, Kabadi VN (2001) High-temperature VLE for the tetralin-quinoline system. J Chem Eng Data 46:994–999Google Scholar
  99. Manara D, Ronchi C, Sheindlin M (2002) Pressure dependence of UO2 melting measured by double-pulse laser heating. Int J Thermophys 23:1147–1156Google Scholar
  100. Marcelino Neto MA, Barbosa JR Jr (2008) Solubility, density and viscosity of a mixture of R-600a and polyol ester oil. Int J Refrig 31:34–44Google Scholar
  101. Martín Á, Pham HM, Kilzer A et al (2009) Phase equilibria of carbon dioxide + poly ethylene glycol + water mixtures at high pressure: measurements and modelling. Fluid Phase Equilib 286:162–169Google Scholar
  102. May EF, Edwards TJ, Mann AG et al (2001) Development of an automated phase behaviour measurement system for lean hydrocarbon fluid mixtures, using re-entrant rf/microwave resonant cavities. Fluid Phase Equilib 185:339–347Google Scholar
  103. Mesiano AJ, Enick RM, Beckman EJ et al (2001) The phase behavior of fluorinated diols, divinyl adipate and a fluorinated polyester in supercritical carbon dioxide. Fluid Phase Equilib 178:169–177Google Scholar
  104. Messens W, Van Camp J, Huyghebaert A (1997) The use of high pressure to modify the functionality of food proteins. Trends Food Sci Tech 8:107–112Google Scholar
  105. Miller DJ, Hawthorne SB (2000) Solubility of liquid organic flavor and fragrance compounds in subcritical (hot/liquid) water from 298 K to 473 K. J Chem Eng Data 45:315–318Google Scholar
  106. Minicucci D, Zou X-Y, Shaw JM (2002) The impact of liquid-liquid-vapour phase behaviour on coke formation from model coke precursors. Fluid Phase Equilib 194–197:353–360Google Scholar
  107. Missopolinou D, Tsivintzelis I, Panayiotou CG (2005) Phase compositions and saturated densities for the binary system of carbon dioxide with 2-ethoxyethanol. Fluid Phase Equilib 238:204–209Google Scholar
  108. Mohammadi AH, Tohidi B, Burgass RW (2003) Equilibrium data and thermodynamic modeling of nitrogen, oxygen, and air clathrate hydrates. J Chem Eng Data 48:612–616Google Scholar
  109. Mohammadi AH, Afzal W, Richon D (2008) Gas hydrates of methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide in the presence of single NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 aqueous solutions: experimental measurements and predictions of dissociation conditions. J Chem Thermodyn 40:1693–1697Google Scholar
  110. Moore SJ, Wanke SE (2001) Solubility of ethylene, 1-butene and 1-hexene in polyethylenes. Chem Eng Sci 56:4121–4129Google Scholar
  111. Nagahama K (1996) VLE measurements at elevated pressures for process development. Fluid Phase Equilib 116:361–372Google Scholar
  112. Najdanovic-Visak V, Esperanca JMSS, Rebelo LPN et al (2003) Pressure, isotope, and water co-solvent effects in liquid-liquid equilibria of (ionic liquid + alcohol) systems. J Phys Chem B 107:12797–12807Google Scholar
  113. Ngo TT, Bush D, Eckert CA et al (2001) Spectroscopic measurement of solid solubility in supercritical fluids. AIChE J 47:2566–2572Google Scholar
  114. Nieuwoudt I, du Rand M (2002) Measurement of phase equilibria of supercritical carbon dioxide and paraffins. J Supercrit Fluids 22:185–199Google Scholar
  115. Nikitin ED, Polov AP, Bogatishcheva NS et al (2002) Vapor-liquid critical properties of n-alkylbenzenes from toluene to 1-phenyltridecane. J Chem Eng Data 47:1012–1016Google Scholar
  116. Nikitin LN, Gallyamov MO, Vinokur RA et al (2003a) Erratum to “Swelling and impregnation of polystyrene using supercritical carbon dioxide”: [J. of Supercritical Fluids 26 (2003) 263–273]. J Supercrit Fluids 27:131Google Scholar
  117. Nikitin LN, Gallyamov MO, Vinokur RA et al (2003b) Swelling and impregnation of polystyrene using supercritical carbon dioxide. J Supercrit Fluids 26:263–273Google Scholar
  118. Oag RM, King PJ, Mellor CJ et al (2004) Determining phase boundaries and vapour/liquid critical points in supercritical fluids: a multi-technique approach. J Supercrit Fluids 30:259–272Google Scholar
  119. Oliveira NS, Oliveira J, Gomes T et al (2004) Gas sorption in poly(lactic acid) and packaging materials. Fluid Phase Equilib 222–223:317–324Google Scholar
  120. Ostergaard KK, Tohidi B, Danesh A et al (2000) Equilibrium data and thermodynamic modelling of isopentane and 2,2-dimethylpentane hydrates. Fluid Phase Equilib 169:101–115Google Scholar
  121. Palamara JE, Davis PK, Suriyapraphadilok U et al (2003) A static sorption technique for vapor solubility measurements. Ind Eng Chem Res 42:1557–1562Google Scholar
  122. Pantoula M, von Schnitzler J, Eggers R et al (2007) Sorption and swelling in glassy polymer/carbon dioxide systems: part II. Swelling. J Supercrit Fluids 39:426–434Google Scholar
  123. Park K, Koh M, Yoon C et al (2004) The behavior of quartz crystal microbalance in high pressure CO2. J Supercrit Fluids 29:203–212Google Scholar
  124. Pasquali I, Andanson JM, Kazarian SG et al (2008) Measurement of CO2 sorption and PEG 1500 swelling by ATR-IR spectroscopy. J Supercrit Fluids 45:384–390Google Scholar
  125. Pauchon V, Cissé Z, Chavret M et al (2004) A new apparatus for the dynamic determination of solid compounds solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide: solubility determination of triphenylmethane. J Supercrit Fluids 32:115–121Google Scholar
  126. Peper S, Dohrn R (2012) Sampling from fluid mixtures under high pressure: review, case study and evaluation. J Supercrit Fluids 66:2–15Google Scholar
  127. Peters TB, Smith JL, Brisson JG (2012) Pressure variation due to heat shock of CO2 hydrate desserts. AIChE J 58:957–966Google Scholar
  128. Pfohl O, Riebesell C, Dohrn R (2002) Measurement and calculation of phase equilibria in the system n-pentane + poly(dimethylsiloxane) at 308.15–423.15 K. Fluid Phase Equilib 202:289–306Google Scholar
  129. Planeta J, Karásek P, Roth M (2009) Distribution of organic solutes in biphasic 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate−supercritical CO2 system. J Phys Chem B 113:9520–9526Google Scholar
  130. Rapeanu G, Van Loey A, Smout C et al (2006) Biochemical characterization and process stability of polyphenoloxidase extracted from Victoria grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa). Food Chem 94:253–261Google Scholar
  131. Richon D (2009) Experimental techniques for the determination of thermophysical properties to enhance chemical processes. Pure Appl Chem 81:1769–1782Google Scholar
  132. Rondinone AJ, Jones CY, Marshall SL et al (2003) A sapphire cell for high-pressure, low-temperature neutron-scattering experiments on gas hydrates. Can J Phys 81:381–385Google Scholar
  133. Roth M (2004) Determination of thermodynamic properties by supercritical fluid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1037:369–391Google Scholar
  134. Ruivo RM, Paiva A, Simoes PC (2004) Phase equilibria of the ternary system methyl oleate/squalene/carbon dioxide at high pressure conditions. J Supercrit Fluids 29:77–85Google Scholar
  135. Sato Y, Takikawa T, Takishima S et al (2001) Solubilities and diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in poly(vinyl acetate) and polystyrene. J Supercrit Fluids 19:187–198Google Scholar
  136. Sato Y, Takikawa T, Yamane M et al (2002) Solubility of carbon dioxide in PPO and PPO/PS blends. Fluid Phase Equilib 194–197:847–858Google Scholar
  137. Sauceau M, Fages J, Letourneau J-J et al (2000) A novel apparatus for accurate measurements of solid solubilities in supercritical phases. Ind Eng Chem Res 39:4609–4614Google Scholar
  138. Schneider GM (1975) Phase equilibria of liquid and gaseous mixtures at high pressures. In: LeNeindre B, Vodar B (eds) Experimental thermodynamics, vol II. Butterworth, London, pp 787–801Google Scholar
  139. Schwarz CE, Knoetze JH (2012) Phase equilibrium measurements of long chain acids in supercritical carbon dioxide. J Supercrit Fluids 66:36–48Google Scholar
  140. Schwarz CE, Zamudio M, Knoetze JH (2011) Phase equilibria of long-chain carboxylic acids in supercritical propane. J Chem Eng Data 56:1116–1124Google Scholar
  141. Secuianu C, Feroiu V, Geana D (2003) High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria in the system carbon dioxide and 2-propanol at temperatures from 293.25 K to 323.15 K. J Chem Eng Data 48:1384–1386Google Scholar
  142. Shariati A, Peters CJ (2002) Measurements and modeling of the phase behavior of ternary systems of interest for the GAS process: I. The system carbon dioxide + 1-propanol + salicylic acid. J Supercrit Fluids 23:195–208Google Scholar
  143. Sherman G, Shenoy S, Weiss RA et al (2000) A static method coupled with gravimetric analysis for the determination of solubilities of solids in supercritical carbon dioxide. Ind Eng Chem Res 39:846–848Google Scholar
  144. Shieh YT, Liu KH, Lin TL (2004) Effect of supercritical CO2 on morphology of compatible crystalline/amorphous PEO/PMMA blends. J Supercrit Fluids 28:101–112Google Scholar
  145. Sidi-Boumedine R, Horstmann S, Fischer K et al (2004) Experimental determination of carbon dioxide solubility data in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. Fluid Phase Equilib 218:85–94Google Scholar
  146. Smith J, Fang Z (2009) Techniques, applications and future prospects of diamond anvil cells for studying supercritical water systems. J Supercrit Fluids 47:431–446Google Scholar
  147. Sovova H, Stateva RP, Galushko AA (2001) Essential oils from seeds: solubility of limonene in supercritical CO2 and how it is affected by fatty oil. J Supercrit Fluids 20:113–129Google Scholar
  148. Spilimbergo S, Bertucco A (2003) Non-thermal bacteria inactivation with dense CO2. Biotechnol Bioeng 84:627–638Google Scholar
  149. Stevens RMM, van Roermund JC, Jager MD et al (1997) High-pressure vapour-liquid equilibria in the systems carbon dioxide + 2-butanol, + 2-butyl acetate, + vinyl acetate and calculations with three EOS methods. Fluid Phase Equilib 138:159–178Google Scholar
  150. Susial P, Rios-Santana R, Sosa-Rosario A (2010) VLE data of methyl acetate + methanol at 1.0, 3.0 and 7.0 bar with a new ebulliometer. J Chem Eng Jpn 43:650–656Google Scholar
  151. Takagi T, Fujita K, Furuta D et al (2003) Bubble point pressure for binary mixtures of propane and pentafluoroethane. Fluid Phase Equilib 212:279–283Google Scholar
  152. Takeshita Y, Sato Y (2002) Measurement of copper compound solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide and correlation using a solution model. J Supercrit Fluids 24:91–101Google Scholar
  153. Tan ZQ, Gao GH, Yu YX et al (2001) Solubility of oxygen in aqueous sodium carbonate solution at pressures up to 10 MPa. Fluid Phase Equilib 180:375–382Google Scholar
  154. Tanaka H, Yamaki Y, Kato M (1993) Solubility of carbon dioxide in pentadecane, hexadecane, and pentadecane + hexadecane. J Chem Eng Data 38:386–388Google Scholar
  155. Trindade JR, Dias AMA, Blesic M et al (2007) Liquid-liquid equilibrium of (1H,1H,7H-perfluoroheptan-1-ol + perfluoroalkane) binary mixtures. Fluid Phase Equilib 251:33–40Google Scholar
  156. Tsivintzelis I, Missopolinou D, Kalogiannis K et al (2004) Phase compositions and saturated densities for the binary systems of carbon dioxide with ethanol and dichloromethane. Fluid Phase Equilib 224:89–96Google Scholar
  157. Tuma D, Wagner B, Schneider GM (2001) Comparative solubility investigations of anthraquinone disperse dyes in near- and supercritical fluids. Fluid Phase Equilib 182:133–143Google Scholar
  158. Venter MJ, Willems P, Kareth S et al (2007) Phase equilibria and physical properties of CO2-saturated cocoa butter mixtures at elevated pressures. J Supercrit Fluids 41:195–203Google Scholar
  159. Villanueva Bermejo D, Ibáñez E, Stateva RP et al (2013) Solubility of CO2 in ethyl lactate and modeling of the phase behavior of the CO2 + ethyl lactate mixture. J Chem Eng Data 58:301–306Google Scholar
  160. Virnau P, Müller M, MacDowell LG et al (2004) Phase separation kinetics in compressible polymer solutions: computer simulation of the early stages. New J Phys 6:7Google Scholar
  161. von Solms N, Nielsen JK, Hassager O et al (2004) Direct measurement of gas solubilities in polymers with a high-pressure microbalance. J Appl Polym Sci 91:1476–1488Google Scholar
  162. VonNiederhausern DM, Wilson GM, Giles NF (2000) Critical point and vapor pressure measurements at high temperatures by means of a new apparatus with ultralow residence times. J Chem Eng Data 45:157–160Google Scholar
  163. Wagner K-D, Dahmen N, Dinjus E (2000) Solubility of triphenylphosphine, tris(p-fluorophenyl)phosphine, tris(pentafluorophenyl)phosphine, and tris(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)phosphine in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide. J Chem Eng Data 45:672–677Google Scholar
  164. Weber MJ (ed) (2002) Handbook of optical materials. CRC, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  165. Weemaes CA, Ludikhuyze L, Van Den Broeck I et al (1998) High pressure inactivation of polyphenoloxidases. J Food Sci 63:873–877Google Scholar
  166. Wubbolts FE, Bruinsma OSL, van Rosmalen GM (2004) Measurement and modelling of the solubility of solids in mixtures of common solvents and compressed gases. J Supercrit Fluids 32:79–87Google Scholar
  167. Yang M, Terakawa E, Tanaka Y et al (2002) Solid-liquid phase equilibria in binary (1-octanol + n-alkane) mixtures under high pressure: part 1. (1-Octanol + n-tetradecane or n-hexadecane) systems. Fluid Phase Equilib 194–197:1119–1129Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • José M. S. Fonseca
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ralf Dohrn
    • 1
  • Stephanie Peper
    • 1
  1. 1.Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Property Data and ThermodynamicsLeverkusenGermany

Personalised recommendations