Automatic Localization of Cochlear Implant Electrodes in CT

  • Yiyuan Zhao
  • Benoit M. Dawant
  • Robert F. Labadie
  • Jack H. Noble
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8673)


Cochlear Implants (CI) are surgically implanted neural prosthetic devices used to treat severe-to-profound hearing loss. Recent studies have suggested that hearing outcomes with CIs are correlated with the location where individual electrodes in the implanted electrode array are placed, but techniques proposed for determining electrode location have been too coarse and labor intensive to permit detailed analysis on large numbers of datasets. In this paper, we present a fully automatic snake-based method for accurately localizing CI electrodes in clinical post-implantation CTs. Our results show that average electrode localization errors with the method are 0.21 millimeters. These results indicate that our method could be used in future large scale studies to analyze the relationship between electrode position and hearing outcome, which potentially could lead to technological advances that improve hearing outcomes with CIs.


cochlear implant electrode array snake segmentation 


  1. 1.
    Verbist, B.M., Frijns, J.H.M., Geleijns, J., van Buchem, M.A.: Multisection CT as a Valu-able Tool in the Postoperative Assessment of Cochlear Implant Patients. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 26, 424–429 (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aschendorff, A., Kubalek, R., Turowski, B., Zanella, F., Hochmuth, A., Schumacher, M., Klenzner, T., Laszig, R.: Quality control after cochlear implant surgery by means of rotational tomography. Otol Neurotol 26, 34–37 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Skinner, M.W., Holden, T.A., Whiting, B.R., Voie, A.H., Brundsen, B., Neely, G.J., Saxon, E.A., Hullar, T.E., Finley, C.C.: In vivo estimates of the position of advanced bionics electrode arrays in the human cochlea. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology Supplement 197, 2–24 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wanna, G.B., Noble, J.H., McRacken, T.R., Dawant, B.M., Dietrich, M.S., Watkins, L.D., Schuman, T.A., Labadie, R.F.: Assessment of electrode placement and audiologic outcomes in bilateral cochlear implantation. Otol Neurotol 32, 428–432 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wanna, G.B., Noble, J.H., Carlson, M.L., Gifford, R.H., Dietrich, M.S., Haynes, D.S., Dawant, B.M., Labadie, R.F.: Impact of electrode design and surgical approach on scalar location and cochlear implant outcomes. Laryngoscope (in press, 2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Noble, J.H., Labadie, R.F., Gifford, R.H., Dawant, B.M.: Image-guidance enables new methods for customizing cochlear implant stimulation strategies. IEEE Trans. on Neural Systems and Rehabilitiation Engineering 21(5), 820–829 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kass, M., Witkin, A., Terzopoulos, D.: Snakes: Active Contour Models. Int’l Jour. of Computer Vision, 321–331 (1988)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Noble, J.H., Schuman, T.A., Wright, C.G., Labadie, R.F., Dawant, B.M.: Automatic Identifi-cation of Cochlear Implant Electrode Arrays for Post-Operative Assessment. In: Dawant, B.M., Haynor, D.R. (eds.) Medical Imaging 2011: Image Processing, Proc. of the SPIE Conf. on Med. Imag., vol. 7962, p. 796217 (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frangi, A.F., Niessen, W.J., Vincken, K.L., Viergever, M.A.: Multiscale vessel enhancement filtering. In: Wells, W.M., Colchester, A., Delp, S. (eds.) MICCAI 1998. LNCS, vol. 1496, pp. 130–137. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Maes, F., Collignon, A., Vandermeulen, D., Marchal, G., Suetens, P.: Multimodality image registration by maximization of mutual information. IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 187–198 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duda, R.O., Hart, P.E.: Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis. A Wiley-Interscience Publication, pp. 192–202. Wiley, New York (1973)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bouix, S., Siddiqi, K., Tannenbaum, A.: Flux driven automatic centerline extraction. Medical Image Analysis 9, 209–221 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yiyuan Zhao
    • 1
  • Benoit M. Dawant
    • 1
  • Robert F. Labadie
    • 2
  • Jack H. Noble
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Elect. Eng. and Comp. Sci.Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Dept. of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surg.Vanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations