Energy-Efficient Roaming for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

  • Dionysis XenakisEmail author
  • Nikos Passas
  • Lazaros Merakos
  • Christos Verikoukis
Part of the Signals and Communication Technology book series (SCT)


Heterogeneous networks enable multi-standard terminals to provide increased Quality of Experience with the ability to always stay connected. Nevertheless, the price paid for multiplicity of active radio interfaces and increased data rates is the rise in energy consumption of multi-standard terminals. This factor coupled with the slow progress in battery technology creates the so called energy trap, which at times can limit the mobile user to the nearest electricity socket creating a real paradox to the headlines of 4G and future generations in terms of unrestricted mobility. Therefore real solutions need to be in place that can support unrestricted roaming, but in an energy efficient manner whilst maintaining Quality of Service (QoS). Today’s mobile networking environment is already considering a HetNet (Heterogeneous networking) environment, with LTE release 12 considering the ABS (almost blank space) approach for coordinated interference management between macro and femto cells (3GPP, Technical report on UMTS heterogeneous networks, 2013, [1]). Therefore, specific user case that can handle mobility management between femto and macro cells, and in a more broader sense vertical handovers will be aligned with current technology trends in 3GPP, and ease the stringent requirements on interference management as well promote the coexistence and dense deployment of heterogeneous small cells, that can include WLAN hotspots among others. In this chapter, we discuss the key aspects of vertical handover (VHO); focusing on the IEEE 802.11 and 3GPP LTE-Advanced network and propose a novel VHO decision algorithm. Following a similar approach, we discuss the key challenges for (horizontal) handover in macrocell–femtocell network, and propose a novel interference-aware decision algorithm as well. The key features of both algorithms is that they are fully compatible with the IEEE and the 3GPP systems, while they focus on minimizing the energy consumption of mobile terminals; a critical requirement for 4G heterogeneous systems and the foreseen 5G system.


Vertical Handover SINR Target Reference Signal Receive Power Close Subscriber Group Handover Decision Algorithm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dionysis Xenakis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nikos Passas
    • 1
  • Lazaros Merakos
    • 1
  • Christos Verikoukis
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Informatics and TelecommunicationsUniversity of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Telecommunications Technological Centre of CataloniaBarcelonaSpain

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