Use of the Biolistic Particle Delivery System to Transform Fungal Genomes

  • V. S. Junior Te’o
  • K. M. Helena NevalainenEmail author
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)


Biolistic delivery of transforming DNA into fungal genomes, especially when performed on uninucleate haploid conidia, has proven successful in bypassing the time-consuming repetitive purification of protoplasts used for the widely applied polyethylene glycol-mediated method. Biolistic transformation is also relatively quick compared to other available methods and provides a high percentage of stable transformants.


Biolistic particle delivery system Filamentous fungi Fungal conidia Trichoderma reesei Fungal genome 



The authors would like to thank the Australian Research Council for funding parts of this research.


  1. Armaleo D, Ye GN, Klein TM, Shark KB, Sandford JC (1990) Biolistic nuclear transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. Curr Genet 17:97–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. de Groot MJA, Bundock P, Hooykaas PJJ, Beijersbergen GM (1998) Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of filamentous fungi. Nat Biotechnol 16:839–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dhawale SS, Paietta JV, Marzluf GA (1984) A new, rapid and efficient transformation procedure for Neurospora. Curr Genet 8:77–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Goldman GH, Van Montagu M, Herrera-Estrella A (1990) Transformation of Trichoderma harzianum by high-voltage electric pulse. Curr Genet 17:169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hazell BW, Te’o VSJ, Bradner JR, Bergquist PL, Nevalainen KMH (2000) Rapid transformation of high secreting mutant strains of Trichoderma reesei by microprojectile bombardment. Lett Appl Microbiol 30:282–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Herzog RW, Daniell H, Singh NK, Lemke PA (1996) A comparative study on transformation of Aspergillus nidulans by microprojectile bombardment of conidia and a more conventional procedure using protoplasts treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 45:333–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Klein TM, Wolf R, Sanford JC (1987) High-velocity microprojectiles for delivering nucleic acids into living cells. Nature 327:70–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Klein TM, Fromm M, Weissinger A, Tomes D, Schaaf S, Sletten M, Sanford JC (1988) Transfer of foreign genes into maize cells with high-velocity microprojectiles. Proc Natl Acad Sci 85:4305–4309PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Miyauchi S, Te’o VS Jr, Bergquist PL, Nevalainen H (2013) Expression of a bacterial xylanase in Trichoderma reesei under the egl2 and cbh2 glycosyl hydrolase gene promoters. N Biotechnol 30:523–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. O’Brien JA, Holt M, Whiteside G, Lummis SCR, Hastings MH (2001) Modifications to the hand-held gene gun: improvements for in vitro biolistic transfection of organotypic neuronal tissue. J Neurosci Methods 112:57–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Penttilä M, Nevalainen H, Rättö M, Salminen E, Knowles J (1987) A versatile transformation system for the cellulolytic filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Gene 61:155–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Sanford JC (1988) The biolistic process. Trends Biotechnol 6:299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sanford JC (1990) Biolistic plant transformation. Physiol Plant 79:206–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Te’o VSJ, Cziferszky AE, Bergquist PL, Nevalainen KMH (2000) Codon optimization of xylanase gene xynB from the thermophilic bacterium Dictyoglomus thermophilum for expression in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. FEMS Microbiol Lett 190:13–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Te’o VSJ, Bergquist PL, Nevalainen KMH (2002) Shooting with seven barrels: biolistic transformation of Trichoderma reesei by the BioRad hepta adaptor system. J Microbiol Methods 51:393–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Uchida M, Li XW, Mertens P, Alpar HO (2009) Transfection by particle bombardment: delivery of plasmid DNA into mammalian cells using the gene gun. Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:754–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. S. Junior Te’o
    • 1
  • K. M. Helena Nevalainen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations