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Conservation of Global Wheat Biodiversity: Factors, Concerns and Approaches

  • M. Asif
  • A. H. Hirani
  • S. K. Basu
  • E. Noguera-Savelli
  • W. Cetzal-IxEmail author
  • P. Zandi
  • R. Sengupta
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 4)

Abstract

Wheat is an important food crop in the world. It is also one of the top three global food crops produced after rice and maize that constitutes an immensely significant role with respect to global food security. Due to finite land resources that can be dedicated to agriculture global wheat production has been consistently dependent on genetic improvement of wheat germplasm across the world. Traditional plant breeding has been an important tool in increasing global food production by producing disease and stress resistant, high yielding and early maturing wheat varieties. However, it is necessary to have a stable and divergent pool of wheat genotypes grown under different environmental conditions and different land races of wheat as genetic feedstock for enhanced genetic improvements. Due to increased global human population, extensive anthropogenic pollution and damages to the vulnerable local ecosystems, existing genotypes and land races of wheat are under constant threat of becoming extinct. Hence it is absolutely necessary to conserve the global wheat biodiversity for securing the future of our food security. Recent progress and developments in technological applications including those in the realm of biotechnology have turned out into an essential tool that could be effectively and efficiently utilized for wheat biodiversity conservation. This short review is an attempt to investigate different factors and concerns jeopardizing global wheat biodiversity and pinpoints some potential approaches for its successful conservation.

Keywords

Wheat Biodiversity Conservation Genetic Cultivars Genotypes Germplasm Landraces Biotechnology 

Abbreviations

AFLP

Amplified fragment length polymorphism

CAAS

Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

CIMMYT

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

DArT

Diversity arrays technology

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

ICARDA

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas

ICGR

Institute of Crop Germplasm Resources

NBPGR

National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources

NIAS

National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences

NSGC

National Small Grains Germplasm Research Facility

RAPD

Random amplified polymorphic DNA

RFLP

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphism

SSR

Simple sequence repeats

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Asif
    • 1
  • A. H. Hirani
    • 2
  • S. K. Basu
    • 3
  • E. Noguera-Savelli
    • 4
  • W. Cetzal-Ix
    • 5
    Email author
  • P. Zandi
    • 6
  • R. Sengupta
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional ScienceUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Plant ScienceUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada
  4. 4.Francisco de MontejoMéridaMéxico
  5. 5.Herbarium CICYCentro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A. C. (CICY)MéridaMéxico
  6. 6.Department of Agronomy, Takestan BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTakestanIran
  7. 7.Department of ZoologyWB State UniversityBarasatIndia

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