Existing Middleware Solutions for Wireless Sensor Networks

  • José Cecílio
  • Pedro Furtado
Part of the Computer Communications and Networks book series (CCN)


Nowadays, heterogeneous sensor networks can be found in application contexts such as environment monitoring, agriculture, warehouse tracking, transport logistics, surveillance and health care, as discussed in Chap.  3. In this chapter we discuss current middleware architectures for distributed sensor systems, where wireless sensor networks are part of the architecture. These middleware architectures refer to software and tools that hide the complexity and heterogeneity of hardware and network platforms. We present an extensive review of existing middleware solutions for wireless sensor networks. This review includes the definition of a taxonomy of operating software for wireless sensor data and a review of several important subjects: remote (re)configuration approaches, middleware architectures inside the WSN, Internet-based integration of sensor data and finally IP-based homogeneous middleware solutions. After reading this chapter, the reader will know precisely what solutions have been investigated and what different paradigms and systems exist concerning middleware software for wireless and hybrid sensor networks.


Sensor Network Sensor Node Wireless Sensor Network Virtual Machine Mobile Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Chatzigiannakis I, Mylonas G, Nikoletseas S (2007) 50 ways to build your application: a survey of middleware and systems for wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE conference on emerging technologies and factory automation (EFTA 2007). IEEE, PiscatawayGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mainetti L, Patrono L, Vilei A (2011) Evolution of wireless sensor networks towards the Internet of things: a survey. In: Proceedings of the 19th international conference on software, telecommunications and computer networks – (SoftCOM 2011), Split, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hadim S, Mohamed N (2006) Middleware: middleware challenges and approaches for wireless sensor networks. In: IEEE distributed systems online, IEEE, vol 7, no 3, pp 1Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sakthidharan GR, Chitra S (2012) A survey on wireless sensor network: an application perspective. In: Proceedings of the 2012 international conference on computer communication and informatics. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yoneki E, Bacon J (2005) A survey of wireless sensor network technologies: research trends and middleware’s role. Computer 646(646):961–962Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang M-M, Cao J-N, Li J, Dasi SK (2008) Middleware for wireless sensor networks: a survey. J Comput Sci Technol 23(3):305–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levis P, Madden S, Polastre J, Szewczyk R, Woo A, Gay D, Hill J, Welsh M, Brewer E, Culler D (2005) Tinyos: an operating system for sensor networks. In: Ambient intelligence, vol II. Springer, Berlin/New York, pp 115–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Han CC, Kumar R, Shea R, Kohler E, Srivastava M (2005) SOS: a dynamic operating system for sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the third international conference on mobile systems applications and services (Mobisys). ACM, New York, pp 163–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dunkels A, Gronvall B, Voigt T (2004) Contiki – a lightweight and flexible operating system for tiny networked sensors. In: Proceedings of the 29th annual IEEE international conference on local computer networks. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, pp 455–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhatti S, Carlson J, Dai H, Deng J, Rose J, Sheth A, Shucker B, Gruenwald C, Torgerson A, Han R (2005) MANTIS OS: an embedded multithreaded operating system for wireless micro sensor platforms. Mobile Netw Appl 10(4):563–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kuorilehto M, Alho T, Hannikainen M, Hamalainen TD (2007) SensorOS: a new operating system for time critical WSN applications. In: Embedded computer systems: architectures, modeling, and simulation. Springer, Berlin/New York, pp 431–442Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barr R, Bicket J, Dantas D, Du B, Kim TW, Zhou B, Sirer EG (2002) On the need for system-level support for ad hoc and sensor networks. ACM SIGOPS Operat Syst 36(2):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eswaran A, Rowe A, Rajkumar R (2005) Nano-RK: an energy-aware resource-centric RTOS for sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE international real-time systems symposium RTSS05, vol 0. IEEE Computer Society, Miami, pp 256–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    ERIKA Enterprise (Online). Available: Accessed 23 Aug 2013
  15. 15.
    Cha HCH, Choi SCS, Jung IJI, Kim HKH, Shin HSH, Yoo JYJ, Yoon CYC (2007) RETOS: resilient, expandable, and threaded operating system for wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 2007 6th international symposium on information processing in sensor networks. ACM, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cao QCQ, Abdelzaher T Stankovic J, He THT (2008) The LiteOS operating system: towards Unix-like abstractions for wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the international conference information processing sensor networks (IPSN 2008), St LouisGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brown S, Sreenan CJ (2006) Updating software in wireless sensor networks: a survey. Technical report, Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland MaynoothGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Han C-C, Kumar R, Shea R, Srivastava M (2005) Sensor network software update management: a survey. Int J Netw Manag 15(4):283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hagedorn A, Starobinski D, Trachtenberg A (2008) Rateless deluge: over-the-air programming of wireless sensor networks using random linear codes. In: Proceedings of the 2008 international conference on information processing in sensor networks: IPSN 2008, vol 00. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 457–466Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rossi M, Bui N, Zanca G, Stabellini L, Crepaldi R, Zorzi M (2010) SYNAPSE++: code dissemination in wireless sensor networks using fountain codes. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 9(12):1749–1765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Krasniewski MD, Panta RK, Bagchi S, Yang C-L, Chappell WJ (2008) Energy-efficient on-demand reprogramming of large-scale sensor networks. In: ACM transactions on sensor networks TOSN, vol 4, no. 1. ACM, New York, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rossi M, Zanca G, Stabellini L, Crepaldi R, Harris AF III, Zorzi M (2008) SYNAPSE: a network reprogramming protocol for wireless sensor networks using fountain codes. In: Proceedings of the 2008 5th annual IEEE communications society conference on sensor mesh and Ad Hoc communications and networks. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 188–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tsiftes N, Dunkels A, Voigt T (2008) Efficient sensor network reprogramming through compression of executable modules. In: Proceedings of the 2008 5th annual IEEE communications society conference on sensor mesh and Ad Hoc communications and networks. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 359–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Levis P, Culler D (2002) Maté: a tiny virtual machine for sensor networks. In: ASPLOSX proceedings of the 10th international conference on architectural support for programming languages and operating systems, vol 36, no. 5. ACM, New York, pp 85–95Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fok CL, Roman GC, Lu C (2005) Rapid development and flexible deployment of adaptive wireless sensor network applications. In: Proceedings of the 25th IEEE international conference on distributed computing systems ICDCS05. IEEE, Los Alamitos, pp 653–662Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Müller R, Alonso G, Kossmann D (2007) SwissQM: next generation data processing in sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 3rd biennial conference on innovative data systems research CIDR07, Asilomar pp 1–9Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Madden SR, Franklin MJ, Hellerstein JM, Hong W (2005) TinyDB: an acquisitional query processing system for sensor networks. ACM Trans Database Syst 30(1):122–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yao Y, Gehrke J (2002) The cougar approach to in-network query processing in sensor networks. ACM SIGMOD Rec 31(3):9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shen CC, Srisathapornphat C, Jaikaeo C (2001) Sensor information networking architecture and applications. IEEE Pers Commun 8(4):52–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yu X, Niyogi K, Mehrotra S (2003) Adaptive middleware for distributed sensor environments. In: IEEE distributed systems online, vol 4, Issue 5Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Liu T, Martonosi M (2003) Impala: a middleware system for managing autonomic, parallel sensor systems. System 38(10):107–118Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boulis A, Han CC, Shea R, Srivastava MB (2007) SensorWare: programming sensor networks beyond code update and querying. Pervasive Mobile Comput 3(4):386–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Janakiram D, Venkateswarlu R, Nitin S (2005) COMiS: component oriented middleware for sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE workshop on local area and metropolitan networks (LANMAN). IEEE, PiscatawayGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schiller J, Liers A, Ritter H, Winter R, Voigt T (2005) ScatterWeb – low power sensor nodes and energy aware routing. In: Proceedings of the 38th annual Hawaii international conference on system sciences 2005 HICSS 05, vol 00, no. C. IEEE, Los Alamitos, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Oldewurtel F, Riihijarvi J, Rerkrai K, Mahonen P (2009) The RUNES architecture for reconfigurable embedded and sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 2009 third international conference on sensor technologies and applications. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 109–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Khedo KK, Subramanian RK (2009) A service-oriented component-based middleware architecture for wireless sensor networks. J Comput Sci 9(3):174–182Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Costa P, Mottola L, Murphy AL, Pietro Picco G (2006) TeenyLIME: transiently shared tuple space middleware for wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the international workshop on middleware for sensor networks. ACM, New York, pp 43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tennina S, Bouroche M, Braga P, Gomes R, Alves M, Mirza F, Ciriello V, Carrozza G, Oliveira P, Cahill V (2011) EMMON: a WSN system architecture for large scale and dense real-time embedded monitoring. In: Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP 9th international conference on embedded and ubiquitous computing. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 150–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Simon D, Cifuentes C, Cleal D, Daniels J, White D (2006) Java on the bare metal of wireless sensor devices: the squawk Java virtual machine. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Virtual execution environments, pp 78–88Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Souto E, Guimarães G, Vasconcelos G, Vieira M, Rosa N, Ferraz C, Kelner J (2005) Mires: a publish/subscribe middleware for sensor networks. Pers Ubiquit Comput 10(1):37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bakshi A, Prasanna VK, Reich J, Larner D (2005) The abstract task graph: a methodology for architecture-independent programming of networked sensor systems. In: Proceedings of the 2005 workshop on end-to-end sense-and-respond systems applications and services (EESR 05), Berkeley, pp 19–24Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rezgui A, Eltoweissy M (2007) Service-oriented sensor–actuator networks: promises, challenges, and the road ahead. Comput Commun 30(13):2627–2648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cañete E, Chen J, Díaz M, Llopis L, Rubio B (2009) A service-oriented middleware for wireless sensor and actor networks. In: Proceedings of the 2009 sixth international conference on information technology new generations, vol 25, no. 6. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 575–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Murphy A, Heinzelman W (2002) Milan: middleware linking applications and networks. Technical report, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Aberer K, Hauswirth M, Salehi A (2006) The global sensor networks middleware for efficient and flexible deployment and interconnection of sensor networks. Technical report LSIR-REPORT-2006-006, Ecole Polytechnique Fedéralé de Lausanne (EPFL). [Online]. Available: Accessed 31 July 2014
  46. 46.
    Abadi DJ, Ahmad Y, Balazinska M, Hwang J, Lindner W, Maskey AS, Rasin A, Ryvkina E, Tatbul N, Xing Y, Zdonik S (2005) The design of the borealis stream processing engine. Time, pp 277–289Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gibbons PB, Karp B, Nath S, Seshan S (2003) IrisNet: an architecture for a worldwide sensor web. IEEE Pervasive Comput 2(4):22–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shneidman J, Pietzuch P, Ledlie J, Roussopoulos M, Seltzer M, Welsh M (2004) Hourglass: an infrastructure for connecting sensor networks and applications. Harvard technical report TR2, vol 1, no. TR-21–04Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Franklin MJ, Jeffery SR, Krishnamurthy S, Reiss F, Rizvi S, Wu E, Cooper O, Edakkunni A, Hong W (2005) Design considerations for high fan-in systems: the HiFi approach. In: CIDR 2005 proceedings of second biennial conference on innovative data systems research, Asilomar, pp 290–304Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gurgen L, Roncancio C, Labbé C, Bottaro A, Olive V (2008) SStreaMWare: a service oriented middleware for heterogeneous sensor data management. In: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Pervasive services, pp 121–130Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ahn S (2006) Building a bridge for heterogeneous sensor networks. In: Software technologies for future embedded and ubiquitous systems, 2006 and the 2006 second international workshop on collaborative computing, integration, and assurance, Gyeongju, pp 121–126Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rooney S, Bauer D, Scotton P (2006) Techniques for integrating sensors into the enterprise network. IEEE Trans Netw Serv Manag 3(1):43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kobialka T, Buyya R, Leckie C, Kotagiri R (2007) A sensor web middleware with stateful services for heterogeneous sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 2007 3rd international conference on intelligent sensors sensor networks and information. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 491–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mulligan G (2007) The 6LoWPAN architecture. In: Proceedings of the 4th workshop on embedded networked sensors. ACM, New York, pp 78–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Priyantha NB, Kansal A, Goraczko M, Zhao F (2008) Tiny web services: design and implementation of interoperable and evolvable sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 6th ACM conference on Embedded network sensor systems, pp 253–266Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Yazar D, Dunkels A (2009) Efficient application integration in IP-based sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the first ACM workshop on embedded sensing systems for energy-efficiency in buildings (BuildSys 09). ACM, New York, p 43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dawson-haggerty S, Jiang X, Tolle G, Ortiz J, Culler D (2010) sMAP: a simple measurement and actuation profile for physical information. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM conference on embedded networked sensor systems. ACM, New York, pp 197–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mayer S, Guinard D, Trifa V (2010) Facilitating the integration and interaction of real-world services for the web of things. In: Proceedings of Urban Internet of Things – Towards Programmable Real-time Cities (UrbanIOT)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cecílio J, Furtado P (2013) Architecture for uniform (Re)configuration and processing over embedded sensor and actuator networks. IEEE Trans Ind Inform 10(1):1–20Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shelby Z, Bormann C, Frank B (2011) Constrained application protocol (CoAP). In: An online version is available at: Accessed 28 July 2014
  61. 61.
    Monmasson E, Cirstea MN (2007) FPGA design methodology for industrial control systems – a review. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 54(4):1824–1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hinkelmann H, Zipf P, Glesner M (2006) Design concepts for a dynamically reconfigurable wireless sensor node. In: Proceedings of the first NASAESA conference on adaptive hardware and systems AHS06, Istanbul, pp 436–441Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zhiyong CH, Pan LY, Zeng Z, Meng MQH (2009) A novel FPGA-based wireless vision sensor node. In: Proceedings on the IEEE international conference on automation and logistics 2009 ICAL09, Shenyang, pp 841–846Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sun Y, Li L, Luo H (2011) Design of FPGA-based multimedia node for WSN. In: 7th international conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM), IEEE, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Muralidhar P, Rao CBR (2008) Reconfigurable wireless sensor network node based on Nios core. In: Proceedings of the 2008 fourth international conference on wireless communication and sensor networks. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chalivendra G, Srinivasan R, Murthy NS (2008) FPGA based re-configurable wireless sensor network protocol. In: Electronic design, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tong J-G, Zhang Z-X, Sun Q-L, Chen Z-Q (2009) Design of wireless sensor network node with hyperchaos encryption based on FPGA. In: Proceedings of the 2009 international workshop on chaos-fractals theories and applications. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 190–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Liu A, Ning P, Wang C (2009) Lightweight remote image management for secure code dissemination in wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM 2009 the 28th conference on computer communications. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 1242–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lim CH (2011) Secure code dissemination and remote image management using short-lived signatures in WSNs. IEEE Commun Lett 15(4):362–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gelernter D (1985) Generative communication in Linda. ACM Trans Program Lang Syst 7(1):80–112zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mihaylov M, Nowé A, Tuyls K (2008) Collective intelligent wireless sensor networks. Artif Intell 172:169–176Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kovatsch M, Weiss M, Guinard D (2010) Embedding Internet technology for home automation. In: Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE conference on emerging technologies and factory automation ETFA, vol 33, no. 3. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 463–472Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Guinard D, Trifa V, Wilde E (2010) A resource oriented architecture for the web of things. In: Internet of things, IEEE, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Castellani AP, Bui N, Casari P, Rossi M, Shelby Z, Zorzi M (2010) Architecture and protocols for the Internet of things: a case study. In: Proceedings of the 2010 8th IEEE international conference on pervasive computing and communications workshops PERCOM workshops. IEEE, Piscataway, pp 678–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Colitti W, Steenhaut K (2011) Integrating wireless sensor networks with the web. In: Lossy networks (IP + SN 2011), Chicago, pp 2–6Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kovatsch M, Duquennoy S, Dunkels A (2011) A low-power CoAP for Contiki. In: Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE eighth international conference on mobile Ad Hoc and sensor systems. IEEE, Los Alamitos, pp 855–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Cecílio
    • 1
  • Pedro Furtado
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations