Electronic Microscopy: General and Specific Notions

  • Martin Schmal
  • Sonia M. R. Vasconcelos


Electronic microscopy (EM) plays a key role in the characterization of catalysts. The understanding of some aspects of these techniques becomes a “sine qua non” condition in catalysis. Although the literature is relatively wide in fundamentals and applications.





Thanks to Carlos André Perez, Ruth Leibson Martins, Deborah Vargas, Lídia O. O. Costa, and Luiz Franchini Bravo. Special thanks to André Luiz Pinto.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Schmal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sonia M. R. Vasconcelos
    • 1
  1. 1.Chem.Eng. Dept.Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.University of São Paulo (USP)São PauloBrazil

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