• Carlos Ramisch
Part of the Theory and Applications of Natural Language Processing book series (NLP)


At the beginning of this book, we asked ourselves three questions: what are MWEs, why do they matter and what happens if we ignore them? Through many examples, we illustrated that MWEs are a broad concept encompassing a large number of recurrent constructions in everyday language, like idioms, phrasal verbs, noun compounds and complex predicates. Due to the ubiquitous nature of MWEs, NLP applications dealing with real text should provide adequate MWE treatment, otherwise they will fail in generating high-quality natural output.


  1. de Medeiros Caseli H, Ramisch C, das Graças Volpe Nunes M, Villavicencio A (2010) Alignment-based extraction of multiword expressions. Lang Resour Eval Spec Issue Multiword Expr Hard Going Plain Sailing 44(1–2):59–77. doi:10.1007/s10579-009-9097-9,
  2. Granada R, Lopes L, Ramisch C, Trojahn C, Vieira R, Villavicencio A (2012) A comparable corpus based on aligned multilingual ontologies. In: Proceedings of the ACL 2012 first workshop on multilingual modeling (MM 2012), Jeju. Association for Computational LinguisticsGoogle Scholar
  3. Kordoni V, Ramisch C, Villavicencio A (eds) (2011) Proceedingsof the ACL workshop on multiword expressions: from parsing and generation to the real world (MWE 2011), Portland. Association for Computational Linguistics, 144p.
  4. Kordoni V, Ramisch C, Villavicencio A (eds) (2013) Proceedings of the 9th workshop on multiword expressions (MWE 2013), Atlanta. Association for Computational Linguistics, 144p.
  5. Ramisch C, de Medeiros Caseli H, Villavicencio A, Machado A, Finatto MJ (2010) A hybrid approach for multiword expression identification. In: Proceedings of the 9th international conference on computational processing of Portuguese language (PROPOR 2010), Porto Alegre. Lecture notes in computer science (Lecture notes in artificail intelligence), vol 6001, pp 65–74. Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-12320-7_9,
  6. Ramisch C, Villavicencio A, Kordoni V (2013) Introduction to the special issue on multiword expressions: from theory to practice and use. ACM Trans Speech Lang Process Spec Issue Multiword Express From Theory Pract Use Part 1 (TSLP) 10(2):1–10Google Scholar
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  8. Schone P, Jurafsky D (2001) Is knowledge-free induction of multiword unit dictionary headwords a solved problem? In: Lee L, Harman D (eds) Proceedings of the 2001 conference on empirical methods in natural language processing (EMNLP 2001), Pittsburgh. Association for Computational Linguistics, pp 100–108Google Scholar
  9. Villavicencio A, Bond F, Korhonen A, McCarthy D (2005) Introduction to the special issue on multiword expressions: having a crack at a hard nut. Comput Speech Lang Spec Issue MWEs 19(4):365–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Villavicencio A, Ramisch C, Machado A, de Medeiros Caseli H, Finatto MJ (2010) Identificação de expressões multipalavra em domínios específicos. Linguamática 2(1):15–33.
  11. Villavicencio A, Idiart M, Ramisch C, Araujo VD, Yankama B, Berwick R (2012) Get out but don’t fall down: verb-particle constructions in child language. In: Berwick R, Korhonen A, Poibeau T, Villavicencio A (eds) Proceedings of the EACL 2012 workshop on computational models of language acquisition and loss, Avignon. Association for Computational Linguistics, pp 43–50Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Ramisch
    • 1
  1. 1.Aix Marseille UniversityMarseilleFrance

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